Making bureaucracies work has always been a challenge the world over. Even developed countries face this uphill task and continue to devise ways to improve the performance of bureaucracy and its political bosses including cabinet ministers. Successive US presidents had been recording conversations with government officials and cabinet ministers to keep a record of their commitments so that they could be held accountable if they were unable to deliver on the agreed commitments or, worse, deny that such commitments ever existed. President Nixon, who was extremely skeptical of bureaucracy and considered it left-leaning and therefore untrustworthy, had put in place an elaborate system of recording almost all such conversations taking place in the Oval office. It is besides the point that this infamous recording system eventually became the key instrument of Nixon’s undoing.
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