Pakistan-India Relations: Old Problems: New Initiatives is authored by Dr. P . Hasan-Askari Rizvi, renowned scholar of Pakistan, as a background paper for the 2nd round of Pakistan-India Parliamentarians Dialogue, facilitated by PILDAT. Written from the perspective of Pakistan, the paper explores diplomatic initiatives that have been undertaken by both Pakistan and India since January 2011 to resume dialogue. The paper is built on the argument that acrimony and conflict spread over six decades has strained both countries’ material resources, caused societal distortions and sustained extremist tendencies and the two countries need to recognise that such a troubled and frustrating state of affairs should not continue. Dialogue is the only option which should continue under all circumstances with a focus on conflict-resolution. The paper concludes by saying that Parliamentarians from India and Pakistan can play a key role in facilitating the dialogue process and conflict resolution on mutually acceptable and advantageous considerations. As an independent Pakistani think-tank, PILDAT believes that while diplomatic channels for Dialogue must continue, Parliamentarians from both countries should be facilitated on both sides for a greater interaction and developing a better understanding for resolving issues that should lead diplomatic initiatives. It is for this objective that PILDAT has been facilitating Parliamentarians Dialogues.