The background paper on Conflict Resolution: The Mediation Process has been written as a part of PILDAT’s programme of Orientation of Members of National Assembly and Provincial Assemblies on Conflict Resolution. Elected legislators engage in the resolution of many conflicts – in their constituencies, at the local level, within legislatures, regionally and nationally and internationally. The basic objective of the PILDAT programme is to build conflict resolution capabilities of legislators so that they are better equipped to play their role as mediators in various conflicts in the society. It is envisaged that by building the conflict resolution capabilities of elected legislators at all levels, our efforts should contribute positively towards Pakistani legislators’ long-term ability to respond and diffuse conflict at all levels. The background paper has been compiled by Ms. Nina Sughrue, an international Conflict Resolution expert affiliated with the United States Institute of Peace (USIP), using the materials from the USIP.