Production and trafficking of narcotics and its nexus with insurgency and terrorism targeting Pakistan is a critical issue for Pakistan. The Government of Pakistan is about to announce its new Anti-Narcotics Policy 2010. It is, therefore, important for the citizens to review the draft policy and provide their input to the government before its finalisation. This Background Paper, prepared by Ms. Soufia Siddiqui under the guidance of PILDAT, sets the draft policy in a context, analysing the need for a comprehensive policy on narcotics control in Pakistan. Impetus for this Background Paper, and a series of Consultation with a cross-section of the society have been provided by the draft Anti-Narcotics Policy formulated by the Ministry of Narcotics Control. We acknowledge the support of the Ministry in sharing the draft Policy as well as the Ministry Year Books that have been used as sources in preparing this Background Paper.