The Background Paper on State of Pakistan-Afghanistan Relations has been commissioned by PILDAT to serve as a background paper for the participating Pakistan and Afghanistan Parliamentarians for the 7th Pakistan-Afghanistan Parliamentarians Dialogue co-organised by PILDAT and the Pakistan-Afghanistan Parliamentary Friendship Group, National Assembly of Pakistan for December 11-12, 2012. The background paper has been authored by Mr. Imtiaz Gul, Executive Director of the Centre for Research and Security Studies. The paper highlights different aspects which embitter relations between Pakistan and Afghanistan and explore the opportunities for both the countries on how to move forward on improving relations. It also discusses and underlines the importance of Parliamentarians’ role in building and sustaining a cohesive partnership between the two states through continued issue-based dialogue and meaningful, result-oriented interactions. As an independent think-tank, PILDAT believes that while diplomatic channels for Dialogue must continue, Parliamentarians from both countries should be facilitated on both sides for a greater interaction and developing a better understanding for resolving issues that lead diplomatic initiatives. It is for this objective that PILDAT has been facilitating Parliamentarians Dialogues.