Peformance of Agriculture in two Punjabs is a Background Paper authored by Prof. Dr. Iqrar Ahmad Khan, Vice Chancellor, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan for the benefit of participants of the Pakistan-India Legislators and Public Officials Dialogue on Sharing of Experiences on Governance and Democracy scheduled to take place on November 20, 2016 in Dubai, UAE. This paper compares the developments of both Pakistan and Indian Punjabs from the 1970s to date. While comparing the sectors the author highlights how the elements of productivity have differentiated due to land utilization; changes in crop pattern and the trends in yield of major crops. He identifies how irrigation, the availability of tractors, and the use of fertilizers have been major factors responsible for the variable performance of the Agriculture Sector in the two countries. Additionally, he also underscores the importance of factors like Land Reforms, Land Reclamation,Agricultural Education, Research and Extension, the Procurement System, Investment in Agricultural Research, Political Support, Fertilizer Prices and the role these have played in the development of the sectors in both Punjabs.