At governmental level, the relations of Pakistan and Afghanistan are not good. After 9/11, when the new government in Afghanistan took power, the bilateral relations of the two neighbors witnessed many ups and downs. Afghan government complains that Pakistan is supporting Taliban, due to which stability is not coming to Afghanistan and Pakistan government complains that Afghanistan is hosting Pakistani Taliban. PILDAT has prepared this background paper for the Dialogue in Kabul of the Defence Committees of the Upper Houses of Parliaments of both countries schedule for September 10-11, 2013. We are grateful to Mr. Saleem Khan Safi for preparing this background paper.