PILDAT Background Paper on Inter-Provincial Water Issues in Pakistan has been prepared to assist and support an informed dialogue. The aim of the background paper is to present the issues in their available detail so as to provide concise and objective information to all stakeholders on inter-provincial water issues in Pakistan and to enable them to understand the issues more meaningfully and recommend agreeable solutions for better policy initiatives and options. This background paper has also been commissioned to explain the inter-provincial water issues in a simple and concise manner so that the politicians, legislators and media persons who may not be technical experts could use this paper as a reference material to update their knowledge of the issues and the positions of various provinces on these issues. The ultimate objective is to hopefully resolve such issues through a sustained and informed dialogue. The paper is intentionally non-prescriptive and tends to faithfully present various viewpoints with their background.