The Background Paper on Ethnic Conflict in Sindh has been commissioned by PILDAT to assist and support an informed dialogue on the ethnic conflict in Sindh. This peer-reviewed paper is authored by Mr. Muhammad Feyyaz, who holds a Masters degree in War Studies from Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad and M.Phil. in Peace & Conflict Studies from the Faculty of Contemporary Studies, National Defence University, Islamabad. The paper has been prepared as a background for a conflict resolution simulation exercise for Members of the Provincial Assembly of Sindh. Sindh is Pakistan’s second largest province with approximately 24% of the nation’s population and is located in the southeastern part of Pakistan. The partition of 1947 changed the demographic complexion of Sindh. The Muslim Sindhis constituted a majority, while a substantial number of Hindu Sindhis, Christians, and Parsis were also living in that territory, particularly in Karachi, which at the time of partition was a city of 300,000 inhabitants. At the time of partition of 1947, a large number of migrants from India also settled in Sindh, mostly in Karachi. Sindh is the only province of Pakistan where ethnic polarisation is serious because of the presence of large ethnic groups and their clashes of interests. The ethnic combustion in Sindh is most distinct due to its disparate ethnic makeup and socio-economic ramifications for the entire nation. The paper is an attempt to explore and illuminate salient dynamics of the ethnic conflict in Sindh.