Update on The Performance of Democratic Institutions | October 2021

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This update is meant to identify key developments during the month on Performance of Democratic Institutions in Pakistan with selected high-profile international developments included occasionally.

In this Issue:

  1. PM appoints Lt. Gen. Naveed Anjum as new DG ISI
  2. National Security Committee (NSC) Meeting
  3. NAB ordinance
  4. Government Opposes exempting Parliamentary Proceedings from RATI
  5. SC rules against arrest without wrongdoing evidence
  6. Pandora Papers
  7. Pakistan stays on FATF grey list
  8. Schedule of LG Elections announced for KP
  9. PML-N president condemns Anti Army slogans at PDM rally
  10. New CM Balochistan
  11. Maintain a Treasury Single Account: IMF
  12. 244th Corps Commanders Conference
  13. Chairman Senate meets Foreign Dignitaries
  14. Interactions of COAS with Foreign Dignitaries
  15. Prime Minister’s Interactions with COAS
  16. Coup in Sudan

PM appoints Lt. Gen. Naveed Anjum as new DG ISI

On October 26, 2021, office of the Prime Minister of Pakistan tweeted that Lt. Gen. Nadeem Anjum has been appointed as the new DG ISI who will assume charge on November 20, 2021. The appointment was made after consultation between Prime Minister and the Chief of Army Staff. Their meeting was “part of the ongoing consultation process between the Prime Minister and Chief of Army Staff about the timing of change of command in ISI and selection of the new DG ISI.” The tweet went on to state that “during this [consultation] process, a list of officers was received from ministry of Defence. Prime Minister interviewed all the nominees.” [1]

The Associated Press of Pakistan (APP) posted image of the ‘notification’ by the Prime Minister’s Office addressed to Secretary Defence which states that the “Prime Minister has seen and approved the appointment of PA-27007 Lt Gen Nadeem Ahmed Anjum, HI (M) as Director General Inter Services Intelligence, with effect from 20th November, 2021, from the panel of officers at para 6 of the summary. The incumbent Director General ISI shall continue to hold charge as the Director General Inter Services Intelligence till 19th November, 2021. The notification is seen as signed by the Secretary to Prime Minister, Mr. Muhammad Azam Khan.” [2]

Earlier, on October 6, 2021, Inter-Services Public Relations (ISPR) had announced through a press release that Lt. Gen. Nadeem Ahmed Anjum was appointed DG ISI. [3] However, the news of the appointment by the ISPR generated speculations about what exactly was going on regarding the appointment of the new DG-ISI. Even though no official statement was made by the government on the controversy, the speculations got credence from the fact that the Prime Minister did not issue an official notification of the appointment of DG ISI for 20 days after the ISPR press release.

News from the federal cabinet meeting held on October 12 reported that Prime Minister wanted sitting DG ISI Lt. Gen. Faiz Hameed to continue in the post due to “critical situation in Afghanistan.” Addressing a press briefing after the meeting, Information Minister said that in a meeting between Prime Minister and Army Chief, the “issue of appointment of new DG ISI was resolved” and it is the legal and constitutional authority of Prime Minister to appoint DG ISI. Malik Muhammad Amir Dogar, MNA and Chief Whip of the PTI in the National Assembly, also told the media that according to “the constitutional and legal procedure to appoint DG ISI, a summary had to be sent to the Prime Minister with three names out of which he selected one probable whom he deemed fit for the office.” [4] On October 14, Information Minister again tweeted that the process of appointment of new DG ISI will be completed soon and Prime Minister will interview candidates for the post. [5]

35th National Security Committee (NSC) Meeting

Chief of Army Staff with Mufti Munib, Mr. Dhedy and Mr. Muhammad Bashir Farooqi

On October 29, the 35th meeting of the National Security Committee (NSC) was convened by the Prime Minister. According to the statement from PMO, the NSC “unanimously resolved to guard its sovereignty from all internal and external threats and to not allow TLP to challenge the writ of the state in any way. Participants endorsed the government’s decision to negotiate with the group only within the bounds of law, without offering leniency for any crimes committed by TLP operatives. Endorsing the view of the Committee, the Prime Minister instructed that all measures and actions necessary to enforce the law and protect the interests of the state and public shall be ensured.”[6]

The meeting was attended by relevant Federal Cabinet members, National Security Adviser, Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, all three Services Chiefs, DGs of ISI, IB and FIA, and senior civil and military officers.

On October 30, Mufti Munib met with Army Chief Gen. Bajwa alongside businessman Aqeel Karim Dhedy and Mr. Muhammad Bashir Farooqi, chair of the Saylani Welfare Trust, to finalise details of the agreement with TLP. On October 31, government announced that it had reached an ‘agreement’ with the TLP in order to end the deadlock and consequentially their protest. The press conference was addressed by Mufti Munib who termed the agreement as a victory of Islam, Pakistan, patriotism and protection of human lives. He was accompanied by PTI Senior Vice Chairman, Parliamentary Leader of the party in the National Assembly and Foreign Minister, Makhdoom Shah Mahmood Qureshi, Speaker National Assembly Mr. Asad Qaiser and Minister of State for Parliamentary Affairs, Mr. Ali Mohammad Khan. [7]

On October 22, TLP had started a long march to Islamabad. Seven police officials were martyred and many injured in clashes in Lahore and Gujranwala as the marchers moved on the GT Road. Clashes and protest was aimed at pressing the authorities to release the TLP chief.

NAB ordinance

On October 6, President Dr Arif Alvi promulgated the National Accountability (Second Amendment) Ordinance, 2021 making way for continuation of the NAB Chair on the post till appointment of new chairman NAB. According to the ordinance, the president will appoint the chairman of NAB in consultation with the Prime Minister and the Leader of the Opposition for a period of four years and the term will be extendable. Methodology followed for appointment of NAB chair will be the one employed while granting an extension. Under the ordinance, President will also have the authority to establish as many accountability courts in the country as he deems fit. Only the accountability court will have the power to grant bail or release the accused and bail would be possible on deposit of amount not less than the amount specifies in respect of which the offence is alleged to have been committed. The ordinance also states that accountability court would hear the case of accused on daily basis. The NAB law will not apply to federal, provincial and local taxation matters, and the decisions of federal and provincial cabinets, committees and sub-committees will not fall under the scope of NAB. Ordinance states that the decisions of the Council of Common Interests, NEC, NFC, ECNEC, CDWP, PDWP will also be outside scope of NAB. [8]

Government Opposes exempting Parliamentary Proceedings from RATI

Federal Minister for Information and Broadcasting

Federal Minister for Information and Broadcasting, Mr. Fawad Ahmad, MNA, has said the the “government wants transparency in governance and the parliament’s proceedings, it does not want to keep any information secret from the nation.” He opposed amendments proposed to be made in the Act through the Right of Access to Information (Amendment) Bill 2020 during a meeting of the Senate Standing Committee on Information on October 4. [9]

The draft private member bill was introduced in the Senate in January 2021 by Senators including Senator Sajjad Hussain Turi, Senator Walid Iqbal, Senator Mohammad Ali Khan Saif, Senator Manzoor Ahmed and Senator Mirza Mohammad Afridi. All movers of the bill belonged to PTI except Senator Muhammad Ali Khan Saif who belonged to the MQM. The bill sought to exclude both the houses of Parliament from the scope of the Right of Access to Information Act, 2017 arguing that Parliament is a constitutional and not a public body. [10]

SC rules against arrest without wrongdoing evidence

Supreme Court Building

A 3-member Supreme Court bench comprising Justice Umar Ata Bandial, Justice Syed Mansoor Ali Shah, and Justice Aminuddin Khan has ruled in a NAB-related case that arresting and detaining a person without any incriminating material offend their right to dignity.

Authored by Justice Syed Mansoor Ali Shah, the judgement states that “Right to dignity under Article 14 is an absolute constitutional standard, which is not subject to law. This is because dignity inheres in a human person and is not granted by law or cannot be taken away by law. Human dignity encapsulates the notion that every person has inherent equal worth; no one’s life and liberty is more important than any other person’s. Arresting and detaining a person without any incriminating material offends his or her right to dignity. This brings us to the most familiar maxim in criminal justice: the presumption of innocence – the principle that a person is presumed innocent until proven guilty by a court of law. This principle is pillared on constitutional right to liberty, fair trial and human dignity. This presumption can only be dislodged if there is sufficient incriminating material against a person as underlined and reinforced by the aforesaid constitutional rights.” [11]

The judgement was written against the backdrop of common practice of detaining individuals by the NAB without complete evidence against them. The bench had taken up an appeal filed by Muhammad Iqbal Khan Noori against the June 26, 2019 Islamabad High Court order which had dismissed his bail plea. [12]

Pandora Papers

On October 3, a set of leaked documents termed as Pandora Papers were released by International Consortium of Investigative Journalists (ICIJ). Prominent names of 700 Pakistanis whose holdings have been exposed include family members of many retired lieutenant and major generals, former PAF chief, Finance Minister, Minister for Industries and Production, SAPM on Finance and Revenue and politicians belonging to the PTI, PPP, PML-N and PML, among others.[13]

Through a series of tweets within minutes of the release of the Pandora Papers, Prime Minister Mr. Imran Khan promised that his government will hold investigation of all those whose names have come up in the Pandora Papers, stating that “appropriate action” will be taken if any corruption is found out.[14] On October 4, PM formed a high-powered cell to investigate if any irregularity had been committed by the 700 Pakistanis named in the Pandora Papers. [15]

Pakistan stays on FATF grey list

On October 21, the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) announced that Pakistan will remain on its grey list. Pakistan has been on the grey list for ‘deficiencies in its counter-terror financing and anti-money laundering regimes’ since June 2018.

Dr. Marcus Pleyer, FATF President, while announcing the decision said that Pakistan has addressed 30 items and it has to complete two action plans with a total of 34 items. Mr. Pleyer added that Pakistan has taken concrete steps but it needs to show that investigations and prosecutions are being done against senior leadership of UN designated terror groups. Mr. Pleyer also said that regarding action plan from June 2021 revolving around money laundering deficiencies which were issued after Asia Pacific Group identified number of serious issues, Pakistan made good progress and 4 out of 7 items have now been addressed. Mr. Pleyer ruled out any discussion on Pakistan being black listed as it has already completed 30 items out of 34 on 2 action plans. Energy Minister, Mr. Hammad Azhar termed FATF comments as a good news while Finance Division declared that FATF has recognized Pakistan’s “considerable progress” on both action plans.[16]

Schedule of LG Elections announced for KP

The ECP has issued the schedule of holding local government elections in KP in two phases on December 19, 2021 and January 16, 2022 respectively. The ECP excluded Malakand district from first phase of elections. The EC rejected the proposal of the KP government to hold LG elections in 3 phases. [17]

The KP government had proposed holding of LG elections for village and neighbourhood councils in December 2021 and in March, 2022. However, under the ECP order, LG polls for village councils, neighbourhood councils and tehsil councils in 17 districts would be held in first phase and rest of 18 districts in the second phase. [18]

On October 31, the ECP also directed the Punjab Government for holding of LG elections within 120 days after expiry of the term of Local Governments on December 31, 2021 and warned that in case of slow response, the ECP may use the option of passing “order” of holding LG elections as it did in case of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and ICT.[19]

On October 21, Punjab government ordered all divisional commissioners and deputy commissioners to immediately transfer entire financial, physical assets and liabilities of the local governments to elected heads. Order follows contempt of court proceedings in the Supreme Court as the Punjab government kept delaying the March 25, 2021 restoration of local governments until October 17, when it finally notified the restoration. [20]

PML-N president condemns Anti Army slogans at PDM rally

Mr. Shehbaz Sharif

On October 24, Mr. Shahbaz Sharif, Leader of the Opposition in the National Assembly and President of PML-N, condemned use of Anti-Military slogans raised in the PDM rally of October 16, 2021. He said that an individual raising slogans against the Army was not from PML-N and such slogans would not be tolerated as these are against national interest. After the conclusion of Ms. Maryam Nawaz speech on October 16 in Faisalabad rally, an individual had appeared on stage and shouted slogans against the ISI.[21]

New CM Balochistan

New CM Balochistan

On October 28, Mir Abdul Qudoos Bizenjo, Former Speaker of the Balochistan Assembly, was elected unopposed as the new Chief Minister of Balochistan.[22] Mr. Jam Kamal Khan, MPA, had resigned as CM on October 24 after he faced opposition from within his own Balochistan Awami Party (BAP). [23]

On October 19, BAP members alongside the opposition members, tabled a no confidence motion against Jam Kamal Khan in Balochistan Assembly which was signed by 33 MPAs. [24] Earlier, in September 2021, a no confidence motion was submitted against Mr. Khan which was signed by 14 MPAs. BAP members criticised Jam Kamal Khan over failure to consult them in running the affairs of Balochistan.

Earlier, Jam Kamal Khan had resisted to resign from the post of CM. Speaking in the Balochistan Assembly he said that he would prefer a defeat in the Provincial Assembly than resign from his post.[25]

Maintain a Treasury Single Account: IMF

Reportedly, the IMF has placed a condition for Pakistan to close all bank accounts maintained by public sector entities and defence ministry in commercial banks. The purpose of this demand is aimed at bringing back hundreds of billions of rupees under government’s control which are placed within commercial banks. According to a source, one of the reasons behind a delay for government in reaching a staff level agreement was IMF’s insistence to roll out treasury single account (TSA-2) system within this fiscal year. [26]

The State Bank of Pakistan is now required to host and maintain a treasury single account on behalf of the federal government. Under the rules, the SBP is required to “collect information from commercial banks and ensure provision of all information to the Finance Division to ensure implementation of the treasury single account system.” [27]

According to finance ministry, there are roughly 50,000 bank accounts maintained by the defence ministry, armed forces and public sector entities including the Oil and Gas Development Company Limited (OGDCL) and National Highway Authority (NHA) that have to be closed under the second phase of the financial management reforms but defence ministry, public entities and some autonomous corporations are still maintaining commercial bank accounts taking the money outside the government’s scope. The sources said under the first phase of IMF program, commercial bank accounts of the government ministries and attached departments had to be closed by May 2021 but only 4,500 of the 6,000 of these accounts could be closed and a balance of about Rs. 5 billion was transferred to the Federal Consolidated Fund. The sources said the government had offered to close these accounts by February 2022.

244th Corps Commanders Conference

On October 5, 244th Corps Commanders Conference was held at the GHQ. General Qamar Javed Bajwa, Chief of Army Staff (COAS) presided over the conference as forum took comprehensive review of evolving security situation in the region with particular focus on Border Management and Internal Security.[28]

Chairman Senate meets Foreign Dignitaries

  1. On October 05, Kazakhstan envoy to Pakistan Mr. Yerzhan Kistafin called on Chairman Senate at the Parliament House, Islamabad.[29]
  2. On October 14, Korean Ambassador to Pakistan, Mr. Suh Sangpyo, called on Chairman Senate at the Parliament House, Islamabad.[30]

Interactions of COAS with Foreign Dignitaries

General Qamar Javed Bajwa, Chief of Army Staff
  1. On October 1, Danish Foreign Affairs Minister Mr. Jeppe Kofod called on Chief of Army Staff at the GHQ[31]
  2. On October 5, Vice Admiral Fahad bin Abdullah Al-Ghufaili, Commander Royal Saudi Naval Forces, called on COAS at the GHQ.[32]
  3. On October 8, US Deputy Secretary of State, Ms. Wendy Sherman, called on COAS at the GHQ[33]
  4. On October 13, Iranian Chief of General Staff, Major General Mohammad Bagheri, called on Chief of Army Staff at the GHQ[34]
  5. On October 18, US Charge d’affaires to Pakistan, Ms. Angela Aggeler, called on COAS at the GHQ[35]
  6. On October 20, H.E Mr Stefano Pontecorvo, Senior Civil Representative NATO, called on COAS at the GHQ.[36]
  7. On October 22, His Excellency Mr Kuninori Matsuda, Japanese Ambassador to Pakistan, called on Chief of Army Staff at the GHQ.[37]
  8. On October 25, H.E Ms Wendy Gilmour, Canadian High Commissioner to Pakistan, called on Chief of Army Staff at the GHQ.[38]

Prime Minister’s Interactions with COAS

During October 2021, Prime Minister Mr. Imran Khan and Chief of Army Staff General Qamar Javed Bajwa met 6 times:

  1. On October 5, PM and COAS met to discuss appointment of New DG ISI.[39]
  2. On October 8, PM and COAS met at 34th National Security Committee.[40]
  3. On October 11, PM and COAS met to discuss appointment of New DG ISI[41]
  4. On October 15, PM and COAS met to discuss appointment of New DG ISI[42]
  5. On October 18, PM and COAS met at National Command and Operation Centre (NCOC)[43]
  6. On October 26, PM and COAS met to discuss appointment of New DG ISI. [44]

Coup in Sudan

In a latest crisis in Sudan on October 25, General Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, Sudan’s top general dissolved country’s power-sharing government and declared a state of emergency. Prime Minister and his cabinet have been arrested and the government stands dissolved.

Sudan has been in turmoil since August 2019 when its long-term authoritarian President Omar al-Bashir was overthrown by military. However mass street demonstrations demanding civilian rule had forced the military to negotiate a plan aimed at moving to a democratic government which resulted in military and civilian leaders have been sharing power. The two have been at odds as military in the transitional government demanded reforms from their civilian counterparts and called for the cabinet to be replaced but this was dismissed as a power grab by civilian leaders. The tensions have resulted in the latest coup attempt. [45]

 

References

  1. Prime Minister’s Office, Pakistan (@PakPMO), Twitter, October 26, 2021, 5:58 pm, accessed October 27, 2021, https://twitter.com/PakPMO/status/1452982933267099662.

  2. “Prime Minister approves appointment of new DG ISI – Lt Gen Nadeem Anjum,” APP online,October 26, 2021, accessed October 27, 2021, https://www.app.com.pk/top-news/prime-minister-approves-appointment-of-new-dg-isi-lt-gen-nadeem-anjum/.

  3. “Appointments / Promotions,” ISPR online, October 6, 2021, accessed October 27, 2021, https://ispr.gov.pk/press-release-detail.php?id=6286.

  4. Syed Irfan Raza, “PM wants current ISI chief to continue for some time: PTI,” Dawn online, October 13, 2021, accessed October 27, 2021, https://www.dawn.com/news/1651629/pm-wants-current-isi-chief-to-continue-for-some-time-pti.

  5. Ch Fawad Husain, (@fawadchaudhry), Twitter, October 14, 2021, 2:05 pm, accessed October 27, 2021, https://twitter.com/fawadchaudhry/status/1448575650772705283.

  6. “35th National Security Committee Meeting,” PMO online, October 29, 2021, accessed November 8, 2021, https://pmo.gov.pk/press_release_detailes.php?pr_id=3823.

  7. Amir Wasim, “Government, TLP ink deal to end impasse,” Dawn online, November 1, 2021, accessed November 2, 2021. https://www.dawn.com/news/1655200.

  8. Asim Yasin, “National Accountability (Amendment) Ordinance, 2021 promulgated,” The News online, October 7, 2021, accessed October 29, 2021. https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/898131-national-accountability-amendment-ordinance-2021-promulgated.

  9. “Minister opposes bill to exempt parliament’s proceedings from right to information law,” Dawn online, October 5, 2021, accessed October 14, 2021. https://www.dawn.com/news/1650178.

  10. “The Right of Access to Information (Amendment) Bill, 2021,” Private Members’ Bills, Senate of Pakistan, January 25, 2021, accessed November 5, 2021, http://senate.gov.pk/uploads/documents/1611720261_606.pdf.

  11. “Muhammad Iqbal Khan Noori v. NAB thr. its Chairman and another,” Supreme Court of Pakistan, C.P.3637/2019, uploaded September 21, 2021, accessed November 8, 2021, https://www.supremecourt.gov.pk/downloads_judgements/c.p._3637_2019.pdf.

  12. Nasir Iqbal, “Supreme Court rules against arrest without incriminating evidence,” Dawn online, October 5, 2021, accessed October 14, 2021. https://www.dawn.com/news/1650193/supreme-court-rules-against-arrest-without-incriminating-evidence.

  13. “Revealed: List of all Pakistanis named in Pandora Papers so far,” Dawn online, October 5, 2021, accessed October 26, 2021. https://www.dawn.com/news/1650077.

  14. “Imran pledges action in case wrongdoing is established,” Dawn online, October 4, 2021, accessed October 14, 2021. https://www.dawn.com/news/1650000.

  15. “High-powered cell formed to investigate offshore firm owners,” Dawn online, October 5, 2021, accessed October 14, 2021. https://www.dawn.com/news/1650161.

  16. Tahir Sherani, “Pakistan to remain on FATF grey list,” Dawn online, October 21, 2021, accessed October 22, 2021. https://www.dawn.com/news/1653195.

  17. Iftikhar. A. Khan, “ECP excludes Malakand district from first phase of LG polls,” Dawn online, October 29, 2021, accessed October 29, 2021. https://www.dawn.com/news/1654644/ecp-excludes-malakand-district-from-first-phase-of-lg-polls.

  18. Iftikhar A. Khan, “ECP sets Dec 19, Jan 16 for LG polls in KP,” Dawn online, October 22, 2021, accessed October 22, 2021. https://www.dawn.com/news/1653291/ecp-sets-dec-19-jan-16-for-lg-polls-in-kp.

  19. Khalid Hasnain, “ECP tells Punjab to take measures to ensure LG polls on time,” Dawn online, November 1, 2021, accessed November 2, 2021. https://www.dawn.com/news/1655162/ecp-tells-punjab-to-take-measures-to-ensure-lg-polls-on-time.

  20. Khalid Hasnain, “Commissioners, DCs told to transfer power to LG heads,” Dawn online, October 22, 2021, accessed October 22, 2021. https://www.dawn.com/news/1653344.

  21. Amjad Mahmood, “Shehbaz distances himself from anti-army slogans,” Dawn online, October 24, 2021, accessed October 25, 2021. https://www.dawn.com/news/1653854/shehbaz-distances-himself-from-anti-army-slogans.

  22. Ghalib Nihad, “Abdul Qudoos Bizenjo elected new Balochistan chief minister unopposed,” Dawn online, October 29, 2021, accessed November 8, 2021, https://www.dawn.com/news/1654738.

  23. Saleem Shahid, “Jam Kamal Khan Alyani bows out, draws curtain on crisis in Balochistan,” Dawn online, October 24, 2021, accessed October 25, 2021. https://www.dawn.com/news/1653858.

  24. Ghalib Nihad, “No-confidence motion against CM Alyani tabled in Balochistan Assembly,” Dawn online, October 21, 2021, accessed October 21, 2021. https://www.dawn.com/news/1653013.

  25. Akhtar Mengal (@sakhtarmengal), Twitter, October 25, 2021, 12:19 am, accessed November 08, 2021, https://twitter.com/sakhtarmengal/status/1452353992734953472.

  26. Abdullah Chaudhry @ChAbdullahpk, Twitter, October 26, 2021 12: 16 a.m, accessed October 27, 2021. https://twitter.com/ChAbdullahpk/status/1452715826000322562.

  27. Shahbaz Rana, “IMF seeks closure of public entities’ accounts in banks,” Express Tribune online, October 24, 2021, accessed October 27, 2021. https://tribune.com.pk/story/2326174/imf-seeks-closure-of-public-entities-accounts-in-banks.

  28. “244th Corps Commanders Conference was held at GHQ today,” ISPR online, October 5, 2021, accessed October 27, 2021. https://ispr.gov.pk/press-release-detail.php?id=6284

  29. “Pakistan keen to further bolster ties with Central Asian countries, Says Sadiq Sanjrani,” Senate of Pakistan online, October 5, 2021, accessed October 29, 2021. http://senate.gov.pk/en/news_content.php?id=4059

  30. “Pakistan intends to expand trade and investment ties with Korea, Says Sadiq Sanjrani,” Senate of Pakistan online, October 14, 2021, accessed October 29, 2021. http://senate.gov.pk/en/news_content.php?id=4076.

  31. “Danish FM meets COAS, lauds Pak role in Afghanistan evacuation,” The News International online, October 02, 2021, accessed November 4, 2021. https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/896973-danish-fm-meets-coas-lauds-pak-role-in-afghanistan-evacuation.

  32. “Vice Admiral Fahad bin Abdullah Al-Ghufaili, Commander Royal Saudi Naval Forces called on General Qamar Javed Bajwa, Chief of Army Staff (COAS) at GHQ, today.,” ISPR online, October 5, 2021, accessed October 26, 2021. https://ispr.gov.pk/press-release-detail.php?id=6282.

  33. Baqir Sajjad Syed, “Anti-terror talks with Pakistan to continue, says US,” Dawn online, October 9, 2021, accessed November 4, 2021. https://www.dawn.com/news/1650912/anti-terror-talks-with-pakistan-to-continue-says-us.

  34. Baqir Sajjad Syed, “Bajwa, Bagheri agree on response to terrorism,” Dawn online, October 14, 2021, accessed November 4, 2021. https://www.dawn.com/news/1651911/bajwa-bagheri-agree-on-response-to-terrorism

  35. “Bajwa stresses Pakistan’s desire for ‘enduring ties’ with US,” Dawn online, October 19, 2021, accessed November 4, 2021. https://www.dawn.com/news/1652825/bajwa-stresses-pakistans-desire-for-enduring-ties-with-us.

  36. “H.E Mr Stefano Pontecorvo, Senior Civil Representative NATO called on General Qamar Javed Bajwa, Chief of Army Staff (COAS) at GHQ, today.,” ISPR online, October 20, 2021, accessed October 26, 2021. https://ispr.gov.pk/press-release-detail.php?id=6292.

  37. “His Excellency Mr Kuninori Matsuda, Japanese Ambassador to Pakistan paid a farewell call to General Qamar Javed Bajwa, Chief of Army Staff (COAS) at GHQ, today,” ISPR online, October 22, 2021, accessed October 26, 2021. https://ispr.gov.pk/press-release-detail.php?id=6294

  38. “H.E Ms Wendy Gilmour, Canadian High Commissioner to Pakistan called on General Qamar Javed Bajwa, Chief of Army Staff (COAS) at GHQ, today.” ISPR online, October 25, 2021, accessed October 26, 2021. https://ispr.gov.pk/press-release-detail.php?id=6300.

  39. Baqir Sajjad Syed, “ISI gets new chief in army reshuffle,” Dawn online, October 6, 2021, accessed November 4, 2021. https://www.dawn.com/news/1650574/isi-gets-new-chief-in-army-reshuffle.

  40. “*34th National Security Committee Meeting*,” PMO, October 8, 2021, accessed November 4, 2021. https://pmo.gov.pk/press_release_detailes.php?pr_id=3762.

  41. Syed Irfan Raza, “PM wants current ISI chief to continue for some time: PTI,” Dawn online, October 13, 2021, accessed November 4, 2021. https://www.dawn.com/news/1651629/pm-wants-current-isi-chief-to-continue-for-some-time-pti.

  42. Syed Irfan Raza, “PM Imran likely to appoint ISI chief today,” Dawn online, October 22, 2021, accessed November 4, 2021. https://www.dawn.com/news/1653288/pm-imran-likely-to-appoint-isi-chief-today.

  43. Ikram Junaidi, “Army chief gets security briefing at ISI HQs,” Dawn online, October 19, 2021, accessed November 4, 2021. https://www.dawn.com/news/1652810/army-chief-gets-security-briefing-at-isi-hqs.

  44. Prime Minister’s Office, Pakistan @PakPMO, Twitter, October 26, 2021 at 5: 58 p.m, accessed November 4, 2021. https://twitter.com/PakPMO/status/1452982933267099662

  45. “Sudan coup: A really simple guide,” BBC online, October 25, 2021, accessed November 09, 2021, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-59035053.