Update on The Performance of Democratic Institutions | April 2022

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This update is meant to identify key developments during the month on Performance of Democratic Institutions in Pakistan with selected high-profile international developments included occasionally.

  1. Dissolution and Restoration of National Assembly and change of Prime Minister
  2. NSC says no foreign conspiracy behind change of PM
  3. Russian invasion of Ukraine can’t be condoned: COAS
  4. Prime Minister Khan unsuccessfully removed COAS Bajwa?
  5. Would Raise issue of Balochistan’s missing persons with “powerful quarters:” PM
  6. Partisan President?
  7. PECA declared Unconstitutional by the IHC
  8. 79th Formation Commanders’ Conference
  9. Campaign against Army “illegal, immoral, and against national interest”
  10. Speaker’s Interactions with Foreign Dignitaries
  11. Interactions of Chairman Senate with Foreign Dignitaries
  12. Interactions of COAS with Foreign Dignitaries
  13. PM-COAS Interactions

Dissolution and Restoration of National Assembly and change of Prime Minister

In a ‘historic’ session of the National Assembly, which eventually witnessed 174 members recording votes of No-confidence against Prime Minister Mr. Imran Khan on April 10, the 15th National Assembly was both dissolved and restored during April.

On April 3, National Assembly Deputy Speaker Mr. Qasim Suri termed the no-confidence motion to be against Article 5 of the Constitution.[1] Following the dismissal of the resolution, Prime Minister advised the President to dissolve the 15th National Assembly. The ruling of the Deputy Speaker, however, was set aside by the order of the Supreme Court on April 7 which also ordered that Prime Minister’s advice to the President to dissolve the Assembly was also contrary to the Constitution and of no legal effect. [2]

On April 9, unusual delaying tactics were on display as the National Assembly sitting continued for 13 hours and 28 minutes in which the house was adjourned for several breaks. 15 minutes before midnight, Speaker National Assembly Mr. Asad Qaiser resigned from his post, saying he could not take part in ‘a foreign conspiracy’ to oust Prime Minister [3] and it was only at 11:57 pm that the process of division and recording of votes was started with its culmination on Sunday, April 10 at 12.02 am. Just ahead of election of the new PM on April 11, Makhdoom Shah Mahmood Hussain Qureshi, MNA announced that PTI MNAs are resigning from the National Assembly, following which the process of voting for the election of Prime Minister started resulting in Mr. Muhammad Shehbaz Sharif securing 174 votes.

NSC says no foreign conspiracy behind change of PM

PM chairing NSC Meeting

On April 22, Prime Minister Mr. Shehbaz Sharif chaired 38th meeting of the National Security Committee (NSC) though the PMO, perhaps erroneously, termed the NSC as the National Security Committee of the Cabinet. [4]

Other than federal ministers of Defence, Information and Broadcasting, Interior, Planning Development and Special Initiatives and Minister of State for Foreign Affairs, Chairman JCSC, three Services Chiefs and Pakistan’s former Ambassador to US Mr. Asad Majeed were also part of the meeting.

In the official communiqué released after the meeting, it was said that the NSC “reaffirmed the decisions of the last NSC meeting,” and that the NSC was informed “again by the premier security agencies that they have found no evidence of any conspiracy.” “Therefore, the NSC after reviewing the contents of the communication, the assessments received, and the conclusions presented by the security agencies, concludes that there has been no foreign conspiracy.”

In the earlier meeting of the NSC held on March 31 which was chaired by then PM Mr. Imran Khan, the PMO had reported that the NSC expressed ‘grave concern’ at the communication and termed the language used by the foreign official as ‘undiplomatic.’ Without sharing details of the country whose official was quoted in the letter, the PMO stated that the NSC considered the content of the communiqué to amount to ‘blatant interference in the internal affairs of Pakistan by the country in question.’ The NSC decided to issue a ‘strong demarche to the country in question both in Islamabad and in the country’s capital through proper channel in keeping with diplomatic norms.’ [5]

Since taking oath of office on April 11, Prime Minister Mr. Shehbaz Sharif has only convened and chaired one meeting of the NSC. PILDAT has long advocated that regular weekly meetings of the NSC, in keeping with global practice of countries that have similar bodies, is crucial for institutionalization of consultation on national security issues. Even though the NSC was formed under the PML-N tenure in 2013, its meetings were not regularly held by Prime Minister Mr. Nawaz Sharif. During Mr. Nawaz Sharif’s four-year stint as Prime Minister, he only convened NSC meetings for a total of 9 times. The regular holding of NSC meeting was greatly improved by Prime Minister Shahid Khaqan Abbasi who held 14 NSC meetings during his 10-month tenure from August 1, 2017-May 31, 2018.[6] In a little over three and a half-year stint as Prime Minister from August 18, 2018-April 10, 2022, Mr. Imran Khan only convened and chaired 12 NSC meetings.

The NSC is an extremely important forum of consultation on national security issues between the elected civil and the military leadership. Not utilising the forum regularly shows that not enough attention is placed on institutionalising mode of consultation between elected leadership and the military which is at the heart of Pakistan’s continuing crisis of democratic governance.

Russian invasion of Ukraine can’t be condoned: COAS

COAS addressing Islamabad Security Dialogue

Two days after Prime Minister Mr. Imran Khan alleged that a US conspiracy was behind the opposition’s move to oust him through a no-confidence motion, Chief of Army Staff, Gen. Qamar Javed Bajwa said that Russia’s invasion of Ukraine could not be condoned and that Pakistan has “an excellent strategic relationship with US, which remains our largest export market.” He was speaking at the Islamabad Security Dialogue on April 2. [7]

Addressing the Islamabad Security Dialogue a day earlier on April 1, Prime Minister Mr. Imran Khan had said that a “powerful country had been angered by his visit to Russia in February and had questioned his decision to go ahead with the two-day tour amid Russia-Ukraine tensions. [8] Without naming the country, Mr. Imran Khan said that hamain bara naraz ho kay hamaray aik bohot taqat-war mulk ne kaha kay ji aap Russia kyun chalay gayay? aik mulk ko keh rahay hain kay aap ne Russia ka daura kiyun kiya hai. Aur ghussay ho gayay hain.”[9]

In his detailed remarks concerning Russia-Ukraine conflict, Chief of Army Staff said that: “Pakistan is deeply concerned about the conflict in Ukraine. With Ukraine we enjoy excellent defence and economic relationship since its independence. With Russia, we had cold relations for a long time due to numerous reasons. However, recently, there have been some positive developments in this regard. Sadly, the Russian invasion against Ukraine is very unfortunate as thousands of people have been killed, millions made refugees and half of Ukraine is destroyed. This is a huge tragedy which must be stopped immediately. Furthermore, despite legitimate security concerns of Russia, its aggression towards a smaller country cannot be condoned. Pakistan has consistently called for an immediate ceasefire and cessation of hostilities. We support immediate dialogue between all sides to find a lasting solution to the conflict. Pakistan has also dispatched humanitarian assistance to Ukraine through special flights of Pakistan Air Force and will continue to do so. the continuation or expansion of conflict in Ukraine will not serve the interests of any side, least of all the developing countries which will continue to face social and economic costs of the conflict which can easily get out of hand.” [10]

Prime Minister Khan unsuccessfully removed COAS Bajwa?

Former Prime Minister Imran Khan with COAS Gen. Qamar Javed Bajwa

In a BBC Urdu story on April 10, it was claimed that Prime Minister Mr. Imran Khan removed Chief of Army Staff General Qamar Javed Bajwa on the evening of April 09 and appointed a new Army Chief though Ministry of Defence did not issue notifications for those. Pre-empting this move by Prime Minister, the Islamabad High Court had been opened to set aside removal of COAS on a petition by a citizen Mr. Adnan Iqbal. However, the petition remained incomplete as Ministry of Defence did not issue the said notification. The story also claimed that while the Prime Minister expected his newly-appointed COAS to arrive at the PM House in the evening of April 9, instead two other uninvited guests arrived in unusual security who met Prime Minister alone for nearly 45 minutes in what was termed as an ‘unpleasant’ exchange. [11]

On same day, however, the Inter-Services Public Relations (ISPR) termed the BBC Urdu story as ‘totally baseless and a pack of lies.’ [12]

In its April 10 news story covering the chaos that preceded the voting on resolution of no confidence in the National Assembly, Dawn also reported that the Islamabad High Court had indeed sat late night on April 9 to consider a petition apprehending ‘removal of the army chief.’ [13]

Would Raise issue of Balochistan’s missing persons with “powerful quarters:” PM

PM received by CM Balochistan upon arrival in Quetta

During a day-long visit to Quetta on April 23, Prime Minister Mr. Shehbaz Sharif said that he would raise the issue of Balochistan’s missing persons with “powerful quarters” …on the basis of law, justice and merit.” He did not specify who he referred to as ‘powerful quarters.’

Prime Minister also said that he was “apologetic” to the people of the province. “Balochistan is Pakistan’s biggest province geographically, but despite having a small population and vast natural resources, it was left behind. He also said that terrorism is on the rise again in Balochistan but that through our joint efforts, it will be defeated again. [14]

In a later tweet on the day, Prime Minister wrote that while in Balochistan he listened to diverse opinions and views of all stakeholders. “The path to development process [in Balochistan] is through the hearts and minds of people and mere development will be meaningless if people’s genuine grievances are not addressed.” [15]

On April 26, a female suicide bomber targeted a vehicle carrying faculty members of Karachi University’s Confucius Institute, killing three (3) Chinese nationals and their local driver. The attack was later claimed to be orchestrated by the Baloch Liberation Army (BLA). [16]

Partisan President?

Governor Punjab, Mr. Omar Sarfraz Cheema with President Dr. Arif Alvi at Aiwan-e-Sadr, Islamabad

In a bizarre turn of events following the turbulent ouster of Prime Minister Mr. Imran Khan, President of Pakistan, Dr. Arif Alvi, refused to take oath from Prime Minister Mr. Shehbaz Sharif and his Federal Cabinet on April 11 on health grounds and Chairman Senate had to administer oath on April 12. [17] It was only after Prime Minister Mr. Shehbaz Sharif met with President Arif Alvi on April 20 [18] after which President administered oath to some of the remaining members of the Federal Cabinet on April 23.[19]

The refusal to administer oath to new PM and cabinet by President Alvi, who was former Secretary General of PTI, was considered quite unusual and politically partisan. It is unprecedented in Pakistan’s history as previous Presidents, including Justice (Retd.) Mohammad Rafiq Tarar, (1998-2001) who administered oath to Gen. Pervez Musharraf’s cabinet, Gen. (Retd.) Pervez Musharraf (2001-2008), who administered oath to Syed Yusuf Raza Gilani as Prime Minister, and Mr. Mamnoon Hussain (2013-2018) who administered oath to Mr. Imran Khan as PM, have performed constitutionally-mandated duties even after the ouster of parties that nominated them for the role of President.

Article 48 of the Constitution binds the President to act in accordance with the advice of the Cabinet or the Prime Minister. A proviso however states that President has 15 days within which to reconsider that advice, although the President is bound to do so if the same advice is returned by the Cabinet within the period of 10 days. Dr. Arif Alvi was sworn in as President on September 9, 2018 and his 5-year term concludes on September 8, 2023. Election to the office of the President can be called upon the expiry of 5-year term and the Constitution stipulates that election can be held not earlier than 60 days and not later than 30 days before the expiration of the 5-year term of the President, or within 30 days of a general election if the National Assembly is dissolved. Removal or impeachment of the President can only be initiated on the grounds of physical or mental incapacity or on charge of violating Constitution or gross misconduct and two-thirds of total membership of Parliament requires to vote in favour of removal or impeachment. Governors of the provinces, however, can be appointed by President on the advice of the PM and can be removed in the same manner.

Not only that President Alvi decided to play a politically-partisan role that the Constitution does not advise a President to play, he also advised Governor Punjab Mr. Omer Sarfraz Cheema [20] who replaced Chaudhry Muhammad Sarwar sacked on April 2, [21] to not administer oath to newly-elected Chief Minister Punjab. Election to CM Punjab could only take place as per the orders of the Lahore High Court (LHC) on April 16 and was marred by disorder and violence on the floor of the Assembly largely due to negligence by the staff of the Assembly Secretariat as observed both PILDAT and FAFEN. [22] After a long-drawn process involving the Lahore High Court, eventually the Speaker National Assembly administered oath to the CM-elect after both President and Punjab Governor failed to obey the earlier court orders.[23]

It must be noted that Governors of other 3 provinces resigned in April including Governor Sindh Mr. Imran Ismail who resigned on April 11 [24] alongside Governor KP Shah Farman [25] and Governor Balochistan Syed Zahoor Agha who resigned on April 13. [26]

In a parliamentary democracy, President is the ceremonial head of State who performs functions on binding advice of Prime Minister. Major changes to Constitution of Pakistan were made through 18th Amendment in April 2010. However, it appears that the President has been taking undue advantage of language of the Constitution which requires amendment to remove confusion and to fully delineate role of President and Governors.

PECA declared Unconstitutional by the IHC

On April 8, Islamabad High Court declared Prevention of Electronic Crimes (Amendment) Ordinance as unconstitutional and also scrapped Section 20 of the Prevention of Electronic Crimes Act (PECA) 2016 which had criminalised defamation.

The IHC short order stated that “the criminalisation of defamation, protection of individual reputations through arrest and imprisonment and the resultant chilling effect violates the letter of the Constitution.” It also stated that “the Prevention of Electronic Crimes (Amendment) Ordinance, 2022 and promulgation thereof is declared as unconstitutional, invalid beyond reasonable doubt and it is, therefore, struck down.” The order also said that “the offence under Section 20 of the Prevention of Electronic Crimes Act, 2016 to the extent of the expression or harms the reputation and the punishment thereof is unconstitutional, invalid beyond reasonable doubt and is, therefore, struck down.” [27]

79th Formation Commanders’ Conference

79th Formation Commanders’ Conference

At the 79th Formation Commanders’ Conference that took place at the GHQ on April 12, the participants including Corps Commanders, Principal Staff Officers and all Formation Commanders of Pakistan Army, “took note of the recent propaganda campaign by some quarters to malign Pakistan Army and create division between the institution and society.”

According to the ISPR statement, “Pakistan Army has always stood by the state institutions to guard it and always will, without any compromise.” The statement also said that “the forum expressed complete confidence in leadership’s well considered stance to uphold the constitution and rule of law, at all cost. Pakistan Army is aware of its responsibilities and shall continue to defend territorial integrity and sovereignty of Pakistan against all internal and external threats under all circumstances.” [28]

Campaign against Army “illegal, immoral, and against national interest”

DG ISPR Maj. Gen. Babar Iftikhar

In a press conference on April 14, DG ISPR Maj. Gen. Babar Iftikhar said that the smear campaign against Pakistan Army run in social media was “illegal, immoral, and against national interest” and won’t be allowed to succeed. [29]

In response to a question, DG ISPR said that COAS was approached by the PMO to find a solution to the deadlock between government and opposition over the no-confidence motion. He added that it is very unfortunate that the leadership of political parties was not willing to talk amongst themselves. Therefore, both the COAS and DG ISI went to the PMO where three (3) scenarios were discussed including the no-confidence motion to go ahead as it is, or Prime Minister Mr. Imran Khan to resign, or the opposition to withdraw its motion and the PM to dissolve assemblies to hold fresh General Election. Prime Minister Mr. Imran Khan favoured the third option and asked COAS to take this option to the opposition. The COAS met with the PDM leadership and presented this option which, after considerable dialogue, was turned down by the PDM. [30]

Responding to a question about applying the word neutral to Armed Forces, DG ISPR said that the word neutral does not fully describe the stance of the Armed Forces. The Armed Forces are ‘apolitical.’ There is no room in constitutional and legal spheres that allows Armed Forces to have any political affiliation of any kind or to interfere in politics. Every citizen of Pakistan and Pakistan’s political parties have demanded since the past 74 years that the Army should have no role in politics, he said, and now we have put this into practice. He said that it is evident that in the past two years the Army has not interfered in politics and one can see any by-election or local government election for evidence of this. He said that this decision of the Army will remain in place in the future also as the decision has not been taken against or in favour of a person. “This is the constitutional role of the Armed Forces and that is what we are trying to fulfil,” he said.

DG ISPR also said that Armed Forces were on board with regards to Prime Minister Mr. Imran Khan’s visit to Russia. He also said that the US never asked for bases in Pakistan and had the US asked, the view of Armed Forces would have been the same as former Prime Minister, Mr. Imran Khan.

Responding to a question whether COAS or his representative met and interacted with former opposition leader in London and Brussels, DG ISI said that “let me put this thing to rest today, once and for all. Chief of Army Staff is neither seeking an extension, nor will he accept an extension, no matter what. He will be retiring on the 29th of November 2022,” said DG ISPR. [31]

Responding to another question, DG ISPR said that Pakistan’s prosperity is linked to democracy and strong institutions, be those Parliament, Judiciary or Armed Forces. There will be no martial law in Pakistan in the future. [32]

Speaker’s Interactions with Foreign Dignitaries

Raja Pervaiz Ashraf, MNA; Speaker National Assembly of Pakistan

Newly-elected Speaker National Assembly, Raja Pervaiz Ashraf, held following meetings with foreign dignitaries during April:

  1. US Congresswoman, Ms. Ilhan Omar, on April 20 [33]
  2. Ambassador of UAE to Pakistan, Mr. Hamad Obaid Al-Zaabi, on April 21 [34]
  3. Ambassador of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to Pakistan, Mr. Nawaf Bin Said Al-Malki, on April 22 [35]
  4. Ambassador of Qatar to Pakistan, Sheikh Saoud bin Abdulrahman Al Thani, on April 26 [36]
  5. Ambassador of Iran to Pakistan, Syed Mohammad Ali Hosseini, on April 29 [37]

Interactions of Chairman Senate with Foreign Dignitaries

Senator Sadiq Sanjrani, Chairman Senate of Pakistan

Chairman Senate of Pakistan, Senator Sadiq Sanjrani, held following meetings with foreign dignitaries during April:

  1. The Minister for Plantation Industries and Commodities of Malaysia, Ms. Zuraida Binti Kamaruddin, on April 1 [38]
  2. Ms. Pang Chunxue, Deputy Head of Mission Chinese Embassy in Pakistan, on April 20 [39]

Interactions of COAS with Foreign Dignitaries

Gen. Qamar Javed Bajwa, Chief of Army Staff

Chief of Army Staff, Gen. Qamar Javed Bajwa, held following meetings and interactions with foreign dignitaries in April:

  1. Mr. Zalmay Khalilzad, ex US Special Representative for Afghanistan Reconciliation on April 1 [40]
  2. Hungarian Ambassador to Pakistan, Mr. Bela Fazekas, on April 14 [41]
  3. Ambassador of Romania to Pakistan, Mr. Nicolae Goia, on April 18 [42]

PM-COAS Interactions

PM with COAS at Miramshah, North Waziristan

There is no public record of a meeting taking place between Prime Minister Mr. Imran Khan and Army Chief Gen. Bajwa during April. However, Prime Minister, Mr. Shehbaz Sharif met and interacted thrice with Army Chief during April:

  1. Chief of Army Staff General Qamar Javed Bajwa called on Prime Minister Shehbaz Sharif on April 19. According to the PMO, “professional matters pertaining to National security” were discussed during the meeting. Defence Minister was not part of the meeting. [43]
  2. Prime Minister and Army Chief were together at Miramshah on April 21. Federal Minister of Defence, Interior and Religious Affairs, Adviser on Political and Public Affairs and Mr. Mohsin Dawar, MNA were with the PM. [44]
  3. COAS was part of the NSC meeting on April 22. As a member of the NSC, Defence Minister was also part of the meeting. [45]

References

  1. Nadir Gurmani, “NA speaker dismisses no-trust move against PM Imran, terms it contradictory to Article 5,” Dawn online, April 3, 2022, accessed April 27, 2022. https://www.dawn.com/news/1683067/na-speaker-dismisses-no-trust-move-against-pm-imran-terms-it-contradictory-to-article-5.

  2. “Order of the Supreme Court of Pakistan on Suo Moto Case No. 1 of 2022,” Supreme Court of Pakistan online, April 7, 2022, accessed April 26, 2022. https://www.supremecourt.gov.pk/downloads_judgements/s.m.c._1_2022_07042022.pdf.

  3. Fahad Chaudhry “Imran Khan loses no-trust vote, prime ministerial term comes to unceremonious end,” Dawn online, April 9, 2022, accessed April 27, 2022. https://www.dawn.com/news/1684168.

  4. “Prime Minister Shehbaz Sharif chaired 38th meeting of the National Security Committee of the Cabinet,” PMO online, April 22, 2022, accessed May 11, 2022. https://pmo.gov.pk/press_release_detailes.php?pr_id=4110.

  5. Prime Minister’s Office, Pakistan (@PakPMO), Twitter, March 31, 2022, 7:12 pm, accessed April 11, 2022. https://twitter.com/PakPMO/status/1509534141892554758.

  6. “Performance of the National Security Committee During Third Year of PTI Federal Government – August 18, 2020 – August 17, 2021,” PILDAT.Org, November 15, 2021, accessed May 11, 2022. https://pildat.org/inter-institutional-relations/performance-of-the-national-security-committee-during-third-year-of-pti-federal-government-august-18-2020-august-17-2021.

  7. Baqir Sajjad Syed, “Russian aggression cannot be condoned: COAS,” Dawn online, April 3, 2022, accessed May 11, 2022. https://www.dawn.com/news/1683170/russian-aggression-cannot-be-condoned-coas.

  8. ‘Powerful’ country angered by recent visit to Russia: PM Imran,” Dawn online, April 1, 2022, accessed May 11, 2022. https://www.dawn.com/news/1682888.

  9. “PM Imran Khan addresses Islamabad Security Dialogue,” YouTube, April 1, 2022, accessed May 11, 2022. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f_qAwyZ4OIo.

  10. “COAS Gen Bajwa addresses Islamabad Security Dialogue,” YouTube, April 2, 2022, accessed May 11, 2022. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ECKKTpN2iG8.

  11. Asif Farooqi, “سنیچر کی شب وزیراعظم ہاؤس میں آخر ہوا کیا؟,” BBC Urdu online, April 10, 2022, accessed May 11, 2022. https://www.bbc.com/urdu/pakistan-61055639.

  12. “BBC Urdu story published today is totally baseless and a pack of lies,” ISPR online, April 10, 2022, accessed May 11, 2022. https://ispr.gov.pk/press-release-detail.php?id=6384.

  13. Amir Wasim, Syed Irfan Raza, “Midnight vote seals Imran’s fate,” Dawn online, April 10, 2022, accessed May 11, 2022. https://www.dawn.com/news/1684296/midnight-vote-seals-imrans-fate.

  14. Will raise issue of Balochistan missing persons with powerful quarters: PM Shehbaz,” Dawn online, April 23, 2022, accessed May 11, 2022. https://www.dawn.com/news/1686432.

  15. Shehbaz Sharif (@CMShehbaz), Twitter, April 23, 2022, 9:41 pm, accessed May 11, 2022. https://twitter.com/CMShehbaz/status/1517906487993057282?cxt=HHwWhICysZP615AqAAAA.

  16. Tahir Siddiqui, “Centre, Sindh team up for security audit after KU blast,” Dawn online, April 28, 2022, accessed May 12, 2022. https://www.dawn.com/news/1687195/centre-sindh-team-up-for-security-audit-after-ku-blast.

  17. Shehbaz – the second Sharif to become prime minister,” Dawn online, April 12, 2022, accessed May 12, 2022. https://www.dawn.com/news/1684605.

  18. PM Shehbaz calls on President Dr Arif Alvi,” Dawn online, April 20, 2022, accessed May 12, 2022. https://www.dawn.com/news/1685948.

  19. Syed Irfan Raza, “President ‘reluctantly’ swears in four cabinet members,” Dawn online, April 23, 2022, accessed May 12, 2022. https://www.dawn.com/news/1686366/president-reluctantly-swears-in-four-cabinet-members.

  20. Imran Adnan, “Omer Sarfraz Cheema sworn in as Punjab governor,” The Express Tribune online, April 3, 2022, accessed May 12, 2022. https://tribune.com.pk/story/2350853/omer-sarfraz-cheema-sworn-in-as-punjab-governor.

  21. Mansoor Malik, “Sarwar blames karma for overnight sacking,” Dawn online, April 4, 2022, accessed May 12, 2022. https://www.dawn.com/news/1683361/sarwar-blames-karma-for-overnight-sacking.

  22. “Joint Statement by PILDAT and FAFEN on Election of Punjab Chief Minister,” PILDAT.Org, April 18, 2022, accessed May 12, 2022. https://pildat.org/parliamentary-monitoring1/joint-statement-by-pildat-and-fafen-on-election-of-punjab-chief-minister.

  23. Wajih Ahmad Shaikh, “Punjab CM to take oath from NA speaker,” Dawn online, April 30, 2022, accessed May 13, 2022. https://www.dawn.com/news/1687509/punjab-cm-to-take-oath-from-na-speaker

  24. Imran Ayub, “Sindh governor resigns before Shehbaz assumes PM’s office,” Dawn online, April 12, 2022, accessed May 12, 2022. https://www.dawn.com/news/1684520/sindh-governor-resigns-before-shehbaz-assumes-pms-office.

  25. Shah Farman quits as KP governor,” Dawn online, April 12, 2022, accessed May 12, 2022. https://www.dawn.com/news/1684535/shah-farman-quits-as-kp-governor.

  26. Saleem Shahid, “Balochistan governor resigns,” Dawn online, April 14, 2022, accessed May 12, 2022. https://www.dawn.com/news/1684926/balochistan-governor-resigns.

  27. Malik Asad, “IHC declares Peca ordinance unconstitutional,” Dawn online, April 09, 2022, accessed May 16, 2022. https://www.dawn.com/news/1684133/ihc-declares-peca-ordinance-unconstitutional.

  28. “79th Formation Commanders’ Conference was held at GHQ. General Qamar Javed Bajwa, Chief of Army Staff (COAS) presided the conference,” ISPR, April 12, 2022, accessed May 16, 2022. https://ispr.gov.pk/press-release-detail.php?id=6385.

  29. Baqir Sajjad Syed, “Military refutes Imran’s foreign plot narrative,” Dawn online, April 15, 2022, accessed May 16, 2022. https://www.dawn.com/news/1685098/military-refutes-imrans-foreign-plot-narrative.

  30. “DG ISPR Press Conference – 14 Apr 2022,” YouTube, April 14, 2022, accessed May 16, 2022. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Row2SX-z468.

  31. “DG ISPR Press Conference – 14 Apr 2022,” YouTube, April 14, 2022, accessed May 16, 2022. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Row2SX-z468.

  32. “COAS is neither seeking extension of tenure nor will he accept one, says DG ISPR,” The News International online, April 14, 2022, accessed May 12, 2022. https://www.thenews.com.pk/latest/950237-dg-ispr-addresses-press-conference.

  33. National Assembly of Pakistan (@NAofPakistan), Twitter, April 20, 2022, 3:48 pm, accessed May 16, 2022. https://twitter.com/NAofPakistan/status/1516730635448111107.

  34. National Assembly of Pakistan (@NAofPakistan), Twitter, April 21, 2022, 9:11 pm, accessed May 16, 2022. https://twitter.com/NAofPakistan/status/1517174167401123841.

  35. National Assembly of Pakistan (@NAofPakistan), Twitter, April 22, 2022, 7:11 pm, accessed May 16, 2022. https://twitter.com/NAofPakistan/status/1517506440579395584.

  36. Speaker National Assembly of Pakistan (@NASpeakerOffice), Twitter, April 26, 2022, 4:32 pm, accessed May 16, 2022. https://twitter.com/NASpeakerOffice/status/1518915905190735872.

  37. “Na Speaker Expresses Concern on Surge in Atrocities on Palestinians,” National Assembly of Pakistan, April 29, 2022, accessed May 16, 2022. https://na.gov.pk/en/pressrelease_detail.php?id=4809.

  38. “The Minister for Plantation Industries and Commodities of Malaysia Ms. Zuraida Binti Kamaruddin, along with a delegation called on the Chairman Senate Muhammad Sadiq Sanjrani discussed in detail issues of mutual interest including the bilateral relations,” Senate of Pakistan, April 01, 2022, accessed May 16, 2022. https://senate.gov.pk/en/news_content.php?id=4280.

  39. “Ms. Pang Chunxue, Deputy Head of Mission Chinese Embassy called on the Chairman Senate Muhammad Sadiq Sanjrani at the Parliament House on Wednesday 20.04.2022,” Senate of Pakistan, April 20, 2022, accessed May 16, 2022. https://senate.gov.pk/en/news_content.php?id=4281.

  40. “Mr Zalmay Khalilzad, ex US Special Representative for Afghanistan Reconciliation and a prominent guest speaker at Islamabad Security Dialogue called on General Qamar Javed Bajwa, Chief of Army Staff (COAS), at GHQ,” ISPR, April 01, 2022, accessed May 16, 2022. https://ispr.gov.pk/press-release-detail.php?id=6381.

  41. “His Excellency Mr Bela Fazekas, Hungarian Ambassador called on General Qamar Javed Bajwa, Chief of Army Staff (COAS) at GHQ,” ISPR, April 14, 2022, accessed May 16, 2022. https://ispr.gov.pk/press-release-detail.php?id=6386.

  42. “His Excellency Mr Nicolae Goia Ambassador of Romania to Pakistan called on General Qamar Javed Bajwa, Chief of Army Staff (COAS) at GHQ,” ISPR, April 18, 2022, accessed May 16, 2022. https://ispr.gov.pk/press-release-detail.php?id=6389.

  43. “Chief of Army Staff General Qamar Javed Bajwa called on Prime Minister Shehbaz Sharif today,” PMO online, April 19, 2022, accessed May 16, 2022. https://pmo.gov.pk/press_release_detailes.php?pr_id=4088.

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