Update on Inter-Institutional Relations in Pakistan | December 2020

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This update is meant to identify key developments during the month on Inter-Institutional Relations in Pakistan with selected high-profile international developments included occasionally. For the purpose of this update, the institutions are meant to be the Legislature, Judiciary and Executive.

In this Issue:

  1. Need for National Dialogue: President
  2. Prime Minister says no Government should Assume Power without Homework
  3. Ms. Maryam Nawaz Sharif terms PTI as Political Garbage put together by Military
  4. “All parties must ensure the sanctity of Parliament and adherence to democratic values,” says Prime Minister
  5. Pakistan Information Commission asks Defence Ministry for Data on Income and Assets of Military officers
  6. COAS, DG ISI call on Prime Minister
  7. PM Approves Civil Servants (E&D) Rules-2020
  8. Supreme Court terms NAO provision of detention of accused as “Cruel”
  9. Chief Justice of Pakistan calls for Timely Disposal of Cases
  10. Supreme Court disappointed with Government’s approach towards Plantation
  11. IHC Chief Justice questions Framing of Social Media Rules
  12. PM re-shuffles Federal Cabinet
  13. PM Conversation with Mr. Bill Gates
  14. National Assembly Speaker told to Accept Resignations of Opposition Legislators
  15. Speaker National Assembly calls for cooperation among Muslim countries
  16. Chinese Ambassador to Pakistan calls on Chairman Senate
  17. UAE Ambassador calls on Chairman Senate
  18. COAS condoles the death of Former Prime Minister
  19. High Commissioner of Sri Lanka to Pakistan calls on COAS
  20. Ambassador of KSA calls on COAS
  21. British High Commissioner calls on COAS
  22. Chinese Ambassador to Pakistan calls on COAS
  23. Military Involvement in Private Sector “Unacceptable” says Sudan PM

Need for National Dialogue: President

President of Pakistan Dr. Arif Alvi

President of Pakistan Dr. Arif Alvi, has said that there is a need for a national dialogue but it is the Prime Minister of Pakistan who will decide to hold such a dialogue and with whom. [1]

The President expressed these views in a meeting with senior journalists on December 28. Reportedly, he also termed the opposition’s demand for Prime Minister’s resignation as unjustified and expressed the hope that the current National Assembly and the Federal Government will complete their five-year constitutional term.

Issues that must come under discussion in a national dialogue, according to the President, should be election reforms, a discussion on the role of the National Accountability Bureau (NAB) and elimination of corruption from the country. [2]

Federal Minister for Information and Broadcasting, Senator Shibli Faraz also said that Prime Minister Mr. Imran Khan was ready for dialogue with serious-minded opposition leaders on public issues minus JUI-F chief Fazlur Rehman and PML-N Vice President Maryam Nawaz. [3]

On December 24, Central Secretary General of Pakistan Muslim League-Functional (PML-F) Mr. Muhammad Ali Durrani had met Mr. Shahbaz Sharif, PML-N President in jail and conveyed a message from Pir Pagara, Syed Sibghatullah Rashadi, on the launch of grand dialogue in the country. After meeting Mr. Shahbaz Sharif, Mr. Durrani told media that the PDM decision to resign from assemblies was a major threat to democracy and that the PML-F is ready to initiate a national dialogue. He said that such a dialogue would have to be held ultimately, so why not now and in meeting Mr. Shehbaz Sharif, PML-F wanted to initiate such a dialogue. “What I am saying is better for the establishment, the government and the opposition too,” said Mr. Durrani. [4]

Prime Minister says no Government should Assume Power without Homework

Prime Minister Mr. Imran Khan

On December 22, Prime Minister Mr. Imran Khan said that a new government should never come to power without homework and without getting briefings. He was addressing a ceremony evaluating performance of Federal Government. [5]

Mr. Imran Khan reportedly said that “When I review my performance, we took three months only to understand [issues as] everything that we had been looking at from outside was altogether different after we came to power….“And then, I must also share, for one and a half years, we remained unable to even know the actual figures of different sectors, particularly the power sector. From one ministry at times the figures indicated we were performing very well and then sometimes some other figure showed we were not performing that well. So, I am giving my assessment that never a new government should come to power without homework and without getting briefings.” [6]

Prime Minister believed that the PTI government did not get enough time to understand the issues confronting the country after the July 25, 2018 election as all their efforts till August 18 were aimed at arranging the required number of seats to form a coalition government. In United States, believed Prime Minister, a US President-elect gets two and a half months to prepare for governance, select team and get briefings from bureaucrats, indicating such a system helps an incoming government to prepare itself.

Ms. Maryam Nawaz Sharif terms PTI as Political Garbage put together by Military

Ms. Maryam Nawaz Sharif at Garhi Khuda Bux

On December 27, Ms. Maryam Nawaz Sharif, Vice President, PML-N, while addressing the Pakistan Democratic Movement (PDM) rally at Garhi Khuda Bakhsh, Larkana at the death anniversary of Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto, criticized Mr. Imran Khan, Prime Minister of Pakistan, for being imposed on Pakistan by the ‘Selectors’ and also asked the Army to stop supporting Mr. Imran Khan.

She said that when Pakistan Peoples Party government was formed in the centre in 2008, many asked Mr. Nawaz Sharif to work towards removing the government but he quelled that thinking within PML-N. However, when elected governments began completing their term, powers that believe in political divide and rule gathered political garbage to create PTI and imposed a leader like Mr. Imran Khan, who was in political wilderness for 22 years, on Pakistan.

Jab siasi jama’atein apni hakoometein puri karne lagain, jab hakoomatein panapne lagein, tu kuch quwaton ko, jin ko divide and rule suit karta tha, takleef honey lagi, tou phir hum ne dekha ke siasi koora akatha kar ke, General Pasha ne aik jama’at banai jis ka naam hai Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf. Aur phir uss jama’at ko aap ki muntakhib hakoomaton ke khilaf dharnon aur sazishon mein istemal kia gya, aur phir ussi siyasi jama’at mein se, aik shakhs jo 22 saal dar-badar ki thokrain khata raha, lekin phir ussi ko utha kar, 22 crore awam me chun kar, uss nalyaq aur na-ehl ko, hum pe musallat kar dia gya.” [7]

She said that Mr. Imran Khan himself has admitted that he was unprepared for governance. She said that those who brought him should not have imposed him on Pakistan without his preparedness for democratic governance.

PDM ne kya kehna hai Imran Khan ko, woh Imran Khan khud aaj cheekh cheekh ke keh raha hai ke mujhe kuch nahhi aata, woh khud dhhai saal ke baad jab woh 3 saal puray karnay ja raha hai, aaj woh bari dhitai se TV pe ye kehta hai ke mujhe kaam karna nahi aata. Woh khud apney mun se aiteraf kar raha hai ke mein nalayaq bhi hoon, naa-ehl bhi hoon aur ye bhi keh raha hai ke tyari ke baghair hakoomaton mein nahi aana chahiye. bhai tumhain ye kehna chahiye ke tayari ke baghair hakoomaton mein nahi laana chahiye.”

Lamenting that it has always been the politicians in Pakistan who are subjected to political, judicial and criminal witch-hunt while those who sell the interests of Pakistan, violate the Constitution and have amassed assets beyond means while being in service are considered blameless in the system. However, she said, this system can hang politicians or put them in jail, it cannot hang ideologies.

Koi Kashmir ka muqadma haar baithay tab bhi masoom, koi apna halaf taur ke siasat mein dakhl-andazi karay tab bhi masoom, koi apne mukhalfeen ko qatl kara de tab bhi masoom, koi apne siasi mukhalif ko jail mein daal de aur maut ke dehanay mein daal puhanchay tab bhi masoom, koi arbaun rupay ki corruption karey, Pizza waley ko jantey ho na….koi sarkari mulazim ho ke arbaun aur kharbaun rupay ke asasay bana lay tab bhi masoom. Lekin phansian hon tau siasat danon ko hon, golian utrain tau siasat danon ke seenay aur saron pe utrain, 100-100, 200 paishian bhugtain tau siasat daan bhugtain, jail ki kaal kothrion pe maut ke dehaney pohoncha diye jaayain tau siasat daan puhncha diyay jayain, bahoo betion ko ghaseeta jayay adalaton mein aur jailon mein tau siasat danon ki bahoo aur betion ko ghaseeta jayay, media pe circus lagay tau siasat danon ke khilaf lagay, kirdr-kushi hau tu sirf siasat danon ki ho, lekin yaad raho nazriye ko phaansi nahi lag sakti. Nazriye ko jila-watni nahi ho sakti aur ye inhi nazriyat ka faiz hai ke aaj tumhara naam lewa bhi koi nahi hai lekin Pakistan ke konay konay mein Nawaz Sharif aur Benazir Bhutto ke naam lewa hain. Nawaz sharif ko tau tum ne ishtihari qarar de diya, lekin tumhari na itni jurrat hai na tum mein itni ghairat hai ke tum Benazr Bhutto ke qatil Musharaff ko Pakistan laana tau dur ki baat hai, tum tau baat bhi nahi kar sakte itne darpok aadmi ho, jis adalat ko Muharraf ne aayin rondne ki, jo uss ne woh gunah kia tha, tau uss adalat ne Musharraf ko phansi ki saza sunai, tau larkana walo uss adalat ko, jiss ne kamal bahadri dikhate huay, Benazir Bhutto ke qatil aur aayin-e-Pakistan ke qatil Musharraf ko phansi ki saza sunai thi uss saza sunane wali adalat ko hi phansi charha dia gia.”

She said that it is Mr. Imran Khan who is asking for NRO from PDM and just sent his messenger to Mr. Shahbaz Sharif in jail who was able to see him swiftly while Mr. Sharif’s family has to wait for weeks to get permission to see him.

Aik hara hua shakhs, aik shikast-kurda shakhs, aik nakam shakhs, awam ka mujrim shakhs, PDM se NRO ki bheek mangta hua nazr aa raha hai… Iss liye kisi ko apna koi message bhejta hai, kabhi koi apna messenger bhejta hai, Shahbaz Sharif se milne ke liye khandaan walon ko hafta hafta ijazat leni parti hai, lekin inn ka messenger jo NRO ki bheek maangne aata hai tau jailon ke darwaze khol diye jaate hain, ijazat ki bhi zaroorat nahi parti.”

“All parties must ensure the sanctity of Parliament and adherence to democratic values,” says Prime Minister

Prime Minister Mr. Imran Khan

Prime Minister Mr. Imran Khan has asked all political parties to safeguard the sanctity of the Parliament and adhere to democratic values. He reportedly expressed this in a meeting with Honourable Speaker Mr. Asad Qaisar, MNA on December 21.

Parliamentary system is important for legislation and continuity of democracy, he believed. People look to the elected representatives to solve their issues, he said. “The real power of Parliament is to serve the people and uphold the Constitution.” [8]

Pakistan Information Commission asks Defence Ministry for Data on Income and Assets of Military officers

 
Pakistan Information Commission

In responding to 34 appeals received, Pakistan Information Commission (PIC) has asked the Ministry of Defence to provide data on income, income tax, assets, perks, privileges, post-retirement benefits and plots allotted to officers of the Pakistan armed forces, terming that this is ‘public information’ and not sensitive information. [9]

Reportedly, majority of the appeals were made to the PIC by the Women’s Action Forum (WAF) who had earlier requested Ministry of Defence to provide this data but their request was declined.

The PIC has asked Ministry of Defence that it is the responsibility of the ministry’s designated public information officer to respond to the requests filed by citizens under Rule 3 of the Right of Access to Information Rules, 2019 within 10 working days and warned that in case on non-cooperation, penalty could be imposed on the relevant officer.

COAS, DG ISI call on Prime Minister

COAS, ISI Chief call on PM Imran Khan

On December 24, Chief of Army Staff, alongside Director General Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) called on the Prime Minister. [10]

According to the Prime Minister Office (PMO), “professional matters pertaining to Pakistan Army and external and internal security situation was discussed” at the meeting. “It was resolved that defence of the motherland will be ensured with the support of entire nation at all cost.” [11]

PM Approves Civil Servants (E&D) Rules-2020

Prime Minister Imran Khan

On December 11, Prime Minister Mr. Imran Khan approved the Civil Servants (Efficiency and Discipline) Rules, 2020. [12]

Under the new rules, inquiry against government officials will have to be decided within 90 days. Plea bargain and voluntary return have been included in the definition of misconduct and the civil servants can be proceeded against. The rules allow Government to prematurely let go of incompetent or average-performing civil servants. Inquiry case will be heard by the ‘authority’, ‘inquiry officer’ or a ‘committee’ instead of any ‘authorised officer’ within 30 days.

According to the new rules, [13] in case of Pakistan Administration Service and Police Service of Pakistan, in the case of officers posted in provinces, a two-month timeline has been provided to each Chief Secretary to submit fact-finding report, failing which the Establishment Division can proceed on its own. Around 10 to 14 days will be given to the accused officer to respond to the charges while the committee or an inquiry officer to be assigned by the authority will have to complete investigations in 60 days whereas the authority will have to decide the case within 30 days.

The procedural issues relating to provision of record, laziness on part of departmental representatives, suspension and proceedings against officers on deputation/ leave/scholarship have been clearly provided in the new rules. The rules further state that the Establishment Division has been authorised to issue subsidiary instructions to avoid any delay in finalising the inquiries.

Supreme Court terms NAO provision of detention of accused as “Cruel”

Supreme Court of Pakistan

On December 3, Justice Umar Ata Bandial described NAB powers of detaining an accused for 90 days as cruel and unjust. He was heading a three judge Supreme Court bench that had taken up 25 appeals moved by the NAB and clubbed together against a February 15, 2017 judgment of Peshawar High Court. [14]

Section 24 (d) of the National Accountability Ordinance (NAO) empowers NAB to detain any accused in its custody for the purpose of inquiry and investigation for a period not exceeding 90 days, but the court concerned can remand the accused to custody not exceeding 15 days at a time and for every subsequent remand, the court will have to record reasons in writing, the copy of which will have to be sent to the High Court concerned.

Justice Mazhar Akbar Naqvi highlighted that in criminal cases only physical remand of 14 days could be given but 90-day remand was provided in the NAO only to allow the NAB to complete its investigation against the accused.

Justice Bandial said the NAB should not harass the accused and should exercise its authority while remaining within the four corners of the laws and further elaborated that what needed against a white collar crime is documentary evidence.

Chief Justice of Pakistan calls for Timely Disposal of Cases

CJP chairing a meeting of National Judicial (Policy Making) Committee (NJPMC) at the Supreme Court

On December 23, Justice Gulzar Ahmed, Chief Justice of Pakistan, directed the High Courts to take necessary steps for timely disposal of cases. He issued the directive at a meeting of the National Judicial (Policy Making) Committee (NJPMC) at the Supreme Court joined by Chief Justices of the High Courts and Judges of the Federal Shariat Court. [15]

Reportedly, the Supreme Court is facing a backlog of 377,380 cases whereas lower judiciary has 1.8 million cases as pending. [16]

On filling vacant posts at all levels of the judiciary, including the special courts, Justice Gulzar has said that efforts should be made for placing the special courts under administrative control of the High Courts.

Supreme Court disappointed with Government’s approach towards Plantation

Chief Justice of Pakistan

On December 6, in a nine-page order issued at a suo motu hearing on the pricing mechanism and management of water use in the country, Chief Justice Gulzar Ahmed and Justice Ijaz-ul-Ahsan have termed lack of interest by respective forest and irrigation departments in the plantation of trees and forestation of the country as disappointing. The Supreme Court has directed Federal and Provincial governments and the Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT) functionaries to take immediate steps. [17]

The Supreme Court, in its earlier direction, had asked the provincial governments to come up with comprehensive strategies and plans for large-scale forestation in the riverine areas, canal banks, around lakes and other water bodies. But, none of the secretaries had been able to share any reliable information indicating that serious steps had been taken to undertake proper implementation of forestation across the country.

IHC Chief Justice questions Framing of Social Media Rules

IHC CJ Justice Athar Minallah

Chief Justice of the Islamabad High Court (IHC) Justice Athar Minallah has questioned the framing of rules for social media and observed that such rules would discourage criticism and would affect accountability in the country. [18]

Taking up a petition filed against the ban on video-sharing social networking service TikTok, Justice Minallah asked the Pakistan Telecommunication Authority (PTA) to review the rules in the light of objections raised by the Pakistan Bar Council (PBC). PBC Vice Chairman Mr. Abid Saqi, as amicus curiae in the case, had said that “The CJ has rightly observed that the best manner to ensure accountability in a democracy is to let people have access to information. In my opinion, access to information is a sine qua non for meaningfully exercising the other democratic rights, like elections of a democratic government, voting, etc.” [19]

Mr. Minallah has said that “Social media rules framed by PTA are prima facie not in consonance with Articles 19 and 19A of the Constitution. The best manner to ensure accountability in a democracy is to let people have access to information.” [20]

PM re-shuffles Federal Cabinet

Sheikh Rasheed Ahmed and Mr. Hafeez A. Shaikh

In responding to the Islamabad High Court ruling that unelected advisers and special assistants cannot head government ministries and committees, Prime Minister, on December 11, appointed Dr. Abdul Hafeez Shaikh as Federal Minister for Finance. [21]

According to the Constitution, Dr. Abdul Hafeez Shaikh can remain Federal Minister for 6 months only from the date of appointment unless he is elected to the Parliament.

In a wider cabinet reshuffle, fourth in less than 3 years of the PTI Federal Government, Sheikh Rasheed Ahmed has replaced Brigadier (Retd.) Ijaz Shah as Interior Minister, Mr. Muhammad Azam Khan Swati has been appointed as Minister for Railways, while Brigadier (Retd.) Ijaz Shah has been appointed as Minister for Narcotics Control. [22]

PM Conversation with Mr. Bill Gates

PM holds telephonic conversation with Mr. Bill Gates

On December 9, Prime Minister Imran Khan, in a telephone conversation with Mr. Bill Gates, Co-Chair of Bill and Malinda Gates Foundation, discussed Covid-19 situation and polio eradication efforts in Pakistan and appreciated Foundation’s continued support for the Ehsaas Programme. [23]

Reportedly, Prime Minister re-affirmed that eradication of polio remained a key priority of the government and thanked the Gates Foundation for its critical support in building Pakistan’s emergency management capacity for polio eradication. Mr. Gates also acknowledged Pakistan’s efforts to combat the Covid-19 pandemic.

National Assembly Speaker told to Accept Resignations of Opposition Legislators

PM Imran Khan chairing the meeting of Federal Cabinet

On December 29, Dawn reported that Prime Minister Imran Khan, from the platform of the Federal Cabinet asked National Assembly Speaker Asad Qaisar to accept resignations, as and when they come.” [24]

The Federal Government, reportedly, also took a number of other important decisions, among them granting approval to the NAB to sign a MoU with the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) of the US for sharing information on money and other assets of Pakistanis hidden in the US.

Speaker National Assembly calls for cooperation among Muslim countries

Ambassador of Iran with Speaker National Assembly of Pakistan

On December 12, Honourable Mr. Asad Qaiser, Speaker National Assembly of Pakistan, while meeting Seyed Mohammad Ali Hosseini Ambassador to Pakistan, expressed that Pakistan and Iran are brotherly Islamic countries and both nations would trigger regional development. Speaker National Assembly emphasized that both nations for their mutual benefit should cooperate in the fields of trade, commerce and energy and trade volume between both countries can increase with special focus on trade activities at Pak-Iran border. [25]

Chinese Ambassador to Pakistan calls on Chairman Senate

Ambassador of China to Pakistan H.E. Nong Rong with Chairman Senate

On December 8, H.E. Nong Rong, Ambassador of China to Pakistan, called on Senator Sadiq Sanjrani, Chairman Senate of Pakistan, to discuss bilateral relations and issues of mutual interest between the two countries. [26]

Reportedly, Chairman Senate said that exemplary relations between the two countries would set a new dimension of social and economic development in the region and also urged for parliamentary diplomacy and strengthening institutional relations between the two nations.

UAE Ambassador calls on Chairman Senate

Ambassador of UAE with Chairman Senate

On December 24, Ambassador of United Arab Emirates, H. E. Mr. Hamad Obaid Alzaabi, held a meeting with the Chairman Senate, Senator Sadiq Sanjrani.

Both dignitaries exchanged views on the prevailing COVID-19 pandemic, the regional and global situation, institutional cooperation and views on the bilateral relations between Pakistan and UAE and ways to enhance it at the Parliamentary levels.[27]

COAS condoles the death of Former Prime Minister

Former Prime Minister Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali

On December 2, General Qamar Javed Bajwa, Chief of Army Staff, expressed heartfelt condolences on the death of former Prime Minister of Pakistan, Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali.

According to the ISPR, COAS, in his remarks, said that “May Allah bless his soul & give strength to the bereaved family to bear this irreparable loss, Ameen.[28]

High Commissioner of Sri Lanka to Pakistan calls on COAS

High Commissioner of Sri Lanka to Pakistan with COAS

On December 15, H.E. Vice Admiral (Retired) Mohan Wijewickrama, High Commissioner of Sri Lanka to Pakistan, called on COAS. Matters of mutual interest, regional security and enhanced bilateral cooperation were discussed during the meeting.[29]

Ambassador of KSA calls on COAS

KSA Ambassador with COAS

On December 15, H.E. Mr. Nawaf Saeed Al Malkiy, Ambassador of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) to Pakistan, called on the Chief of Army Staff at the GHQ. Reportedly, matters of mutual interest, regional security situation and bilateral defence relations were discussed. [30]

British High Commissioner calls on COAS

British High Commissioner with COAS

On December 17, H.E Dr. Christian Turner, British High Commissioner to Pakistan, called on the COAS at the GHQ. Reportedly, matters of mutual interest and overall regional security situation were discussed. [31]

Chinese Ambassador to Pakistan calls on COAS

Chinese Ambassador with COAS

On December 21, H.E. Mr. Nong Rong, Chinese Ambassador to Pakistan, called on the COAS at the GHQ. Reportedly, he appreciated Pakistan’s role for peace in the region. Referring to recent visit of Chinese Defence Minister to Pakistan, COAS said “it will further strengthen our time-tested relations with our ‘Iron Brother.’ [32]

Military Involvement in Private Sector “Unacceptable” says Sudan PM

Prime Minister of Sudan

On December 14, Prime Minister of Sudan, Mr. Abdalla Hamdok, stated that the involvement of Sudan’s military in the private sector is “unacceptable,” and such enterprises should be turned into public companies.[33]

He was speaking at news conference regarding Sudan’s removal from a US list of state sponsors of terror the same day which is expected to bring-in much-needed financial assistance and foreign investment to Sudan. He was responding to a question about a law passed by the U.S. Congress requiring financial transparency and civilian control over Sudan’s state-owned enterprises as a condition for US assistance to Sudan.

Sudan’s military, which rules with a civilian coalition over a transitional period following the ouster of Omar al-Bashir in 2019, controls numerous businesses in the agriculture, mining, and energy sectors. Sudan’s ruling Transitional Military Council serves under chairman Lt. Gen. Abdel Fattah al-Burhan since April 2019. Lt-Gen Burhan has been accused of involvement in atrocities during military operations against non-Arab civilians in Darfur in 2003, when he was chief of ground forces. [34] The Transitional Military Council and civilian opposition had signed a deal to form an 11-member civilian-dominated Sovereign Council, with a rotating presidency, to govern the country during a 39-month transitional period. [35]

Sudanese Prime Minister, Mr. Abdalla Hamdok also said that “all the world’s armies are involved in investments … in military manufacturing.” “But for the military to invest in the productive sector, and to displace the private sector, is unacceptable.” “You cannot manage resources belonging to the Sudanese people without transparency or accountability. There’s no wavering on this,” he added. [36]

  1. Wasim, A. (2020) Demand for PM’s resignation termed ‘unjustified.’ Available at: https://www.dawn.com/news/1598434/demand-for-pms-resignation-termed-unjustified (Accessed 01 January 2021).
  2. Wasim, A. (2020) Demand for PM’s resignation termed ‘unjustified.’ Available at: https://www.dawn.com/news/1598434/demand-for-pms-resignation-termed-unjustified (Accessed 01 January 2021).
  3. Alvi, M (2020): PM Imran Khan to decide on dialogue, says President Arif Alvi. Available at: https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/765756-pm-to-decide-on-national-dialogue. (Accessed 01 January 2021).
  4. The News (2020) Durrani meets Shahbaz in jail, stresses ‘grand dialogue’. Available at: https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/764048-durrani-meets-shahbaz-in-jail-stresses-grand-dialogue. (Accessed 03 January 2021).
  5. Dawn (2020) Never come to power without homework, says PM. Available at: https://www.dawn.com/news/1597328 (Accessed 30 December 2020).
  6. Dawn (2020) Never come to power without homework, says PM. Available at: https://www.dawn.com/news/1597328 (Accessed 30 December 2020).
  7. Youtube (2020) Maryam Nawaz Speech From PDM Jalsa in Larkana | 27th December 2020. Available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_bCvsBISNr0 (Accessed 06 January 2021).
  8. Alvi, M. (2020) PM Imran Khan asks all parties to ensure sanctity of Parliament. Available at https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/762538-pm-asks-all-parties-to-ensure-sanctity-of-parliament. (Accessed 22 December 2020).
  9. Ali, K (2020) Ministry asked to provide data on income, assets of senior military officers. Available at: https://www.dawn.com/news/1594786/ministry-asked-to-provide-data-on-income-assets-of-senior-military-officers (Accessed 09 December 2020).
  10. Syed, B. S. (2020): PM, COAS vow to go all out for repelling aggression. Available at: https://www.dawn.com/news/1597693. (Accessed 25 December 2020).
  11. PMO (2020) Chief of Army Staff General Qamar Javed Bajwa called on PM of Pakistan at Islamabad today. Director General ISI Lt. Gen. Faiz Hamid was also present on the occasion. Available at https://pmo.gov.pk/press_release_detailes.php?pr_id=3705 (Accessed 25 December 2020).
  12. Raza, I, S. (2020): Rules okayed to improve bureaucracy performance. Available at https://www.dawn.com/news/1593681. (Accessed 03 December 2020).
  13. Establishment.gov.pk (2020) Cabinet Secretariat Notification on Civil Servants (Efficiency and Discipline) Rules, 2020. Available at http://www.establishment.gov.pk/SiteImage/Misc/files/EandDrules2020.pdf (Accessed 09 January 2021).
  14. Iqbal, N. (2020): SC alarm over 90 day detention of accused in NAB cases. Available at https://www.dawn.com/news/1593903. (Accessed 03 December 2020).
  15. Dawn (2020): CJP asks high courts for timely disposal of cases. Available at: https://www.dawn.com/news/1597509#:~:text=ISLAMABAD%3A%20Chief%20Justice%20of%20Pakistan,cases%20to%20eliminate%20their%20backlog. (Accessed on December 24, 2020)
  16. Dawn (2020): CJP asks high courts for timely disposal of cases. Available at: https://www.dawn.com/news/1597509#:~:text=ISLAMABAD%3A%20Chief%20Justice%20of%20Pakistan,cases%20to%20eliminate%20their%20backlog. (Accessed on December 24, 2020)
  17. Iqbal, N. (2020) SC irked at govt’s approach towards plantation. Available at: https://www.dawn.com/news/1594232. (Accessed 06 December 2020).
  18. Asad, M. (2020): IHC chief justice questions new social media rules. Available at: https://www.dawn.com/news/1594080/ihc-chief-justice-questions-new-social-media-rules. (Accessed 05 December 2020).
  19. Asad, M. (2020): IHC chief justice questions new social media rules. Available at: https://www.dawn.com/news/1594080/ihc-chief-justice-questions-new-social-media-rules. (Accessed 05 December 2020).
  20. Asad, M. (2020): IHC chief justice questions new social media rules. Available at: https://www.dawn.com/news/1594080/ihc-chief-justice-questions-new-social-media-rules. (Accessed 05 December 2020).
  21. Khan, S. (2020): Hafeez made finance minister, Rashid gets interior in yet another cabinet shakeup. Available at: https://www.dawn.com/news/1595191. (Accessed on December 12, 2020)
  22. Na.gov.pk (2020) Federal Ministers. Available at http://na.gov.pk/en/fmins_list.php (Accessed 14 January 2021).
  23. Dawn (2020): PM discusses covid situation with Bill Gates. Available at: https://www.dawn.com/news/1594919. (Accessed on December 10, 2020)
  24. Raza, I. R. (2020): NA Speaker told to accept resignations. Available at: https://www.dawn.com/news/1598620. (Accessed 03 January 2021).
  25. The Nation (2020) Co-op among Muslim countries imperative: Qaiser. Available at: https://nation.com.pk/12-Dec-2020/co-op-among-muslim-countries-imperative-qaiser (Accessed 25 December 2020).
  26. The Nation (2020): Chinese envoy discusses bilateral ties with Sanjrani. Available at: https://nation.com.pk/09-Dec-2020/chinese-envoy-discusses-bilateral-ties-with-sanjrani. (Accessed 25 December 2020).
  27. Mati (2020) UAE Envoy meets Chairman Senate Sadiq Sanjrani. Available at: https://dnd.com.pk/uae-envoy-meets-chairman-senate-sadiq-sanjrani/208298. (Accessed on 29 December 2020).
  28. ISPR (2020) General Qamar Javed Bajwa, COAS, expresses heartfelt condolences on the sad demise of former Prime Minister of Pakistan Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali. Available at https://ispr.gov.pk/press-release-detail.php?id=5953. (Accessed 25 December 2020).
  29. ISPR (2020) Vice Admiral Mohan Wijewickrama (Retired), High Commissioner of Sri Lanka to Pakistan called on General Qamar Javed Bajwa, Chief of Army Staff (COAS), today. Available at: https://ispr.gov.pk/press-release-detail.php?id=5971 (Accessed 25 December 2020).
  30. ISPR (2020) H.E Mr Nawaf Saeed Al Malkiy, Ambassador of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) called on General Qamar Javed Bajwa, Chief of Army Staff (COAS), today. Available at: https://ispr.gov.pk/press-release-detail.php?id=5970 (Accessed 25 December 2020).
  31. ISPR (2020) H.E Dr. Christian Turner, British High Commissioner called on General Qamar Javed Bajwa, Chief of Army Staff (COAS), today. Available at: https://ispr.gov.pk/press-release-detail.php?id=5974. (Accessed 25 December 2020).
  32. ISPR (2020) H.E Mr Nong Rong, Chinese Ambassador to Pakistan called on General Qamar Javed Bajwa, Chief of Army Staff (COAS) at GHQ, today. Available at: https://ispr.gov.pk/press-release-detail.php?id=5978. (Accessed 25 December 2020).
  33. Reuters (2020) Sudan’s PM calls military involvement in private sector ‘unacceptable.’ Available at: https://www.reuters.com/article/sudan-usa-hamdok-int-idUSKBN28O2YA (Accessed 03 January 2021).
  34. BBC (2019) Sudan Country Profile. Available at: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-14094995 (Accessed 03 January 2021).
  35. EiU (2021) Sudan. Available at: https://country.eiu.com/sudan (Accessed 13 January 2021).
  36. Reuters (2020) Sudan’s PM calls military involvement in private sector ‘unacceptable.’ Available at: https://www.reuters.com/article/sudan-usa-hamdok-int-idUSKBN28O2YA (Accessed 03 January 2021).

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