South Africa is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, and like Pakistan, it has its unique account of political history, and a struggle for stabilising a Parliamentary system, after independence from Britain. Unlike the other members, however, South Africa has had a distinctive clash with democracy, adversely affecting civilian oversight of the defence sector, in the form of the Apartheid. PILDAT has commissioned a series of papers to provide a comparative perspective on democratic and parliamentary experiences of other countries in the field of defence oversight. This paper Parliamentary Oversight of Defence: South Africa in the Democratic Era provides an overview of the historic developments in civilian oversight of defence and how Parliamentary Committees in South Africa have been empowered to facilitate the system and practice of oversight on defence. This paper has been authored by Mr. Justin Sylvester, a Political Researcher, who has earlier served at the Political Information & Monitoring Service (PIMS) of IDASA, an independent public interest organisation, South Africa and now works with the Open Society Foundation as a Director for the Human Rights and Governance Programme.