Despite 18 Amendment to the Constitution, the 7 NFC Award and the Aghaz-e-Haqooq Balochistan package that have granted unprecedented financial, political and administrative autonomy to Balochistan in line with the demands of the nationalist parties and forces, unrest and insurgency in Balochistan have continued. What ails Balochistan in reality? What are the unmet demands of Balochistan? Dominant discourse on Balochistan these days is blaming Pakistan’s military and security agencies for compounding the scenario in the province. There is a complete and total absence of a counter-narrative from the Federal Government and the Establishment. What is the real issue? Who are the real culprit behind the current quagmire in Balochistan and what is the way forward? As an indigenous organization, PILDAT believes there is a need to have an objective and fact-based discussion on Balochistan. This Issue Paper attempts to provide a backdrop for an objective discourse.