Free and fair elections are a fundamental pre-requisite for democracy. In countries where the election process is flawed, the political leadership lacks legitimacy. Elections in Pakistan, unfortunately, have been marred with controversy and mistrust. Therefore, it is imperative that concerted efforts are undertaken to establish a credible and fair election system. The objective of this background paper is to contribute to the prevalent debate on how to ensure free, fair and credible elections in Pakistan. PILDAT hopes that the paper will provide the necessary background information for public representatives and civil society to play a more proactive role in electoral reforms and election monitoring.