ABOUT PILDAT EVENTS PUBLICATIONS VIDEO REPORTS
JOB OPENINGS
MNA DIRECTORY FEEDBACK
 
 
EVENTS

Share on Facebook
> Monitor on Civil-Military Relations in Pakistan | August 2017
   
 
CMR Monitor
September 15, 2017
Islamabad

   

This monitor is meant to identify key developments during the month on Civil Military Relations in Pakistan with selected high-profile international developments included occasionally.

In this Issue:

  1. No Civil-Military Divide: DG ISPR
  2. Calls for Inter-Institutional Dialogue
  3. Continuing Role of COAS in Diplomacy
  4. Ms. Jahangir Questions Inclusion of Military in JIT
  5. Dictator on Democracy
  6. COAS calling on Premier - Yet Another Change in Optics
  7. COAS holds flag hoisting on Pakistan's 70th Independence Anniversary
  8. ISPR's Annual Internship Programme
  9. Military-run SCO denied permission to operate across country
  10. National Security Committee meets thrice in August
  11. COAS calls Former Premier
  12. CDA asked to avoid direct contact with foreign diplomats
  13. PM-COAS Interactions
  14. Turkey changes military chiefs
  15. Ex PM Yingluck's flight provides Thai junta welcome way out


No Civil-Military Divide: DG ISPR

Macintosh HD:Users:musirah.farrukh:Desktop:CMR:Monitor:CMR Monitor August:ISPR brifeing Dawn.jpg
DG ISPR Maj. Gen. Asif Ghafoor addressing a press conference on August 21, 2017

Major General Asif Ghafoor, DG ISPR, has reportedly dismissed the notion of any civil-military divide in Pakistan. [1]

In response to a question during a press conference on completion of Operation Khyber IV, DG ISPR reportedly said that 'there is friction sometimes, but there are no problems between the civilian [government] and the military. It is all part of statesmanship .' Alluding perhaps to what he termed 'friction,' he said that ' these issues will not disappear overnight, you need to see how much we have improved compared to the last 17 years. We want to - and are moving towards - a Pakistan where there is peace, stability, rule of law and [freedom for] all institutions [to] work .' [2]


Calls for Inter-Institutional Dialogue

In a Senate session on August 09, 2017, during a debate on the post-Panama case scenario, Senators mulled over inviting representatives of State institutions to the Senate for a dialogue.

Chairman Senate, Senator Raza Rabbani said that ' strengthening the Parliament is a shared responsibility, so an inter-institutional dialogue should be held in this regard .'[3]

Responding to this, DG ISPR said that the Pakistan Army could be a part of such a dialogue if the Government decides to have a 'grand dialogue'. He said that ' we are part of the system, part of the State, we will play the part of the army .'[4]

Former Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, in his concluding speech at the GT road during his homecoming rally from Islamabad to Lahore, also supported the idea mooted by the Senate Chairman for holding a 'Grand Dialogue.' [5]

PTI Vice Chairman, Shah Mehmood Qureshi also accepted Senator Raza Rabbani's proposition but questioned the mechanisms to initiate and sustain such an initiative. According to media reports, MQM is also not averse to the idea. However, PPP Chairman Mr. Bilawal Bhutto-Zardari disowned the idea, saying that the Pakistan Army should not be involved in any such process.[6]

 

Continuing Role of COAS in Diplomacy

COAS General Qamar Javed Bajwa seems to continue in the footsteps of his predecessor in the field of diplomacy, as he interacts with foreign Ambassadors, and visiting dignitaries.

COAS condemned a Taliban attack on the US Armed Forces, offering ' heartfelt condolences on the death of two Special Forces soldiers who died in the incident .' The ISPR press release also said that ' we fully understand the loss and pain of victims' families as Pakistan is undergoing a similar trial of blood, in fight against common threat of terrorism .'[7] The COAS statement was issued by the ISPR on the same day on August 3, as the Acting US Special Representative for Afghanistan and Pakistan, Ms. Alice Wells, met with Pakistan's Foreign Secretary, Ms. Tehmina Janjua. [8]

Macintosh HD:Users:musirah.farrukh:Desktop:CMR:Monitor:CMR Monitor August:army chief's diplomacy - ispr.jpg
Ambassador of Afghanistan to Pakistan, H. E. Dr. Omar Zakhiwal meeting with COAS General Bajwa on August 02, 2017

Earlier, on August 02, 2017, the COAS also held a meeting with the Afghan Ambassador to Pakistan, Dr. Omar Zakhilwal, at the GHQ.  According to the press release issued by the ISPR, ' issues of mutual interest including security situation and border management were discussed .'[9] However, a tweet by Dr. Zakhilwal said that the meeting was "a follow-up" discussion with the COAS. [10]

In another such meeting, the US Ambassador to Pakistan, Mr. David Hale, also met with COAS General Qamar Bajwa on August 23, 2017. [11] According to ISPR, the COAS relayed to the US Ambassador that Pakistan ' was not looking for any material or financial assistance from the US but trust, understanding and acknowledgement of our contributions '.[12]

Macintosh HD:Users:musirah.farrukh:Desktop:COAS with Hale- ISPR.jpg
US Ambassador to Pakistan, H.E. Mr. David Hale meeting with COAS General Bajwa on August 23, 2017

Yet again, on August 25, 2017, a nine-member Afghan media delegation that was on a weeklong visit in coordination with the ISPR, met with the COAS. In his reported message, the COAS said that the media could play an important part in 'mitigating the negativity created by inimical forces.' He also stressed upon Pakistan's efforts in undertaking operations against 'terrorists of all hue and colour' and effective border management. [13]

On August 9, the COAS also met with the visiting Saudi Deputy Defence minister, Mr. Mohammad bin Abdullah Al Aysh, where he reportedly said that ' Pakistan holds its defence ties with Saudi Arabia in the highest esteem and also reasserts its unwavering commitment to the defence of Harmain Sharifain and safeguarding the territorial integrity of the Kingdom .'[14]

It must be noted that during all these interactions by the COAS relating to Pakistan's foreign policy and diplomatic ties, apparently no representative from Pakistan's Foreign Office was part of the meetings.


Ms. Jahangir Questions Inclusion of Military in JIT

Macintosh HD:Users:musirah.farrukh:Desktop:CMR:Monitor:CMR Monitor August:Asma dawn.jpg
Former President of Supreme Court Bar Association, Ms. Asma Jahangir at 'Meet the Press' on August 03, 2017

While PILDAT reported in its Monitor of July 2017 that that the international media largely implied the disqualification of Mr. Nawaz Sharif was a result of covert military influence, the former President of Supreme Court Bar Association of Pakistan, Ms. Asma Jahangir, offered scathing criticism on the role of Judiciary in including representatives of the Military in the Joint Investigation Team formed under the Panama Case. [15]

Ms. Jahangir believed that suo motu notice against Mr. Sharif by the Supreme Court resulted in the loss of the right of appeal as the fundamental right. Criticizing the inclusion of ISI and MI officials in the JIT, Ms. Jahangir questioned as to how the Honourable Judges would feel if ISI and MI were included in the Supreme Judicial Council that investigates references against sitting Judges. [16]

PILDAT has continued to question the inclusion of representatives of MI and ISI in the JIT since April 2017, terming it inappropriate. PILDAT continues to maintain, that including Military into spheres outside of its professional scope and competence is a worrying trend. Not only that, military institutions such as the ISI and the MI do not have the professional role to investigate white collar crime, the Honourable Supreme Court should not have inducted military agencies into highly politicized Panama Case enquiry.[17]


Dictator on Democracy

Macintosh HD:Users:musirah.farrukh:Desktop:CMR:Monitor:CMR Monitor August:Musharaf.png
Gen. (Retd.) Pervez Musharraf interviewed by BBC Urdu on August 03, 2017

It is ironic that after himself hampering Pakistan's democratic progress through a coup in 1999 and a de facto martial law in 2007, Pakistan's only living dictator, Gen. (Retd.) Pervez Musharraf holds a perspective on why Pakistan has a fledgling democracy.

In an interview to BBC Urdu in Dubai on August 03, 2017, General Musharraf claimed ' that progress made in the economic and social sectors under military regimes showed that military rule was much better than civilian rule .' He also said that the military ' believed in democracy, but also questioned its effectiveness when it came to good governance .' [18]

He also claimed that the military never seized power without reason or logic, and their coups are informed by the poor situation in the country and deemed necessary at the time. He insisted that, ' lack of good governance by elected leaders often invites military intervention '. [19]

Comparing dictatorial rules, he praised dictatorial regime of Ayub Khan, but termed dictatorship by Zia-ul-Haq as controversial, due to promotion of religious extremism. [20]

DG ISPR Maj Gen Asif Ghafoor disowned musings of the retired general at a press conference on August 21, 2017, as his personal comments, that did not represent the perspective of the Pakistan Army. [21] Answering a question about Musharraf's statement, that military rule brought most stability to Pakistan, DG ISPR said that ' He [Gen. (Retd.) Musharraf] has been retired for nearly 10 years now. It is a different matter if he makes a comment about defence affairs given his past experience as army chief. However, if he gives political statements, it is solely his stance as a political leader, and the army as an institution does not own or comment on statements made by political leaders .' [22]PILDAT appreciates the principled position articulated by the DG-ISPR.


COAS calling on Premier - Yet Another Change in Optics

Yet another change in optics was witnessed when the COAS General Qamar Javed Bajwa called on the newly-elected Prime Minister, Mr. Shahid Khaqan Abassi, on August 08, 2017. [23]

The seating arrangement between the Premier and the COAS appears to have gone back to the seating arrangement enjoyed by Gen. Bajwa's predecessor when calling on the then-Prime Minister Sharif. Pictures below depict the change:

Macintosh HD:Users:musirah.farrukh:Desktop:580545f1c1de8.jpg
Earlier Seating Arrangement during COAS-Premier Interactions: photo shows previous COAS Gen. (now Retd.) Raheel Sharif calling on the then-PM Nawaz Sharif on October 18, 2016

Macintosh HD:Users:musirah.farrukh:Desktop:5839f4f21d49f.jpg
Seating arrangement changed when the newly-appointed COAS General Qamar Javed Bajwa called on the then-PM Nawaz Sharif on November 27, 2016

Macintosh HD:private:var:folders:51:_c1668z143x7w77rpjv5xb9m0000gq:T:TemporaryItems:598a485accfe9.jpg
COAS General Qamar Javed Bajwa meeting with newly-elected PM Shahid Khaqan Abbasi on August 09, 2017


COAS holds flag hoisting on Pakistan's 70th Independence Anniversary

Macintosh HD:Users:musirah.farrukh:Desktop:CMR:Monitor:CMR Monitor August:14 August The News.jpg
COAS General Bajwa addressing the flag-hoisting ceremony at Wahgah Border

The 70-year birthday celebrations for Pakistan on August 14, 2017 seem to have ushered in newer practices.

Ahead of the official celebrations where traditionally the President of Pakistan, as head of the State, hoists Pakistan's flag with Premier and service chiefs in attendance - in a clear drift from that tradition - the COAS General Qamar Bajwa hoisted the largest national flag in the history of Pakistan at Wahgah border at midnight between August 13 and 14. The flag hoisted by the COAS was reportedly the largest flag in the history of Pakistan with the size of 120 feet by 80 feet. Hoisted on a 400 feet high pole, the flag is said to be the highest in South Asia and the 8 th highest flag in the world. The flag hoisting was followed by a grand fireworks display, and an address by the COAS, in which he was quoted to have said that, ' We have rendered many sacrifices - we will never forget our martyrs... we will execute each and every terrorist in Pakistan. I want to tell our enemies, whether they are in the east or west, that your bullets will end but not the chests of our jawans [soldiers] .'[24]

Similarly, there was another Independence Day parade held at the PAF Academy Risalpur which was also organised at midnight between August 13 and 14. [25]


ISPR's 'Annual' Internship Programme

Macintosh HD:Users:musirah.farrukh:Desktop:CMR:Monitor:CMR Monitor August:annual internship ispr.jpg
COAS General Bajwa interacting with students of the ISPR Internship Programme

The ISPR organised, what it termed as, the 'annual' internship programme from July 11 to August 17, 2017 bringing in students from ' various educational institutions across the country including FATA' .[26]

Reportedly, COAS General Qamar Bajwa addressed ISPR interns advising them to be cautious of hostile narratives on social media, as educated youth is the prime target of ISIS and the likes of such militant organizations.[27] Earlier, the 200 students, inducted through the Internship Programme were taken on a visit to Heavy Industries Taxila (HIT), where HIT's contribution to self-reliance in defence equipment were highlighted by Chairman HIT, Lt. Gen. Naeem Ashraf. [28]

The ISPR website is silent about the application process for this internship programme, or the area of work undertaken by the students enrolled under the programme. In addition to the induction criteria, it is also unclear whether interns received any remuneration. That it is the start of such an annual internship, or has it been taking place earlier is also unknown.


Military-run SCO denied permission to operate across country

On August 18, 2017, the Federal Government denied the military-led Special Communications Organization (SCO) a permit to operate across the country. The decision was reportedly taken after review of report submitted by the SCO, on grounds of severe disagreement with the proposed amendments, as they were 'against stated policy of the Government.' [29]

The Special Communications Organization (SCO), a public sector organization, (established in 1976 to ' develop, operate and maintain telecom services in Azad Jammu & Kashmir and Gilgit Baltistan) working under the Ministry of Information Technology and Telecommunication, operates under the management of the Pakistan Army [30] with the head of the organization and divisional heads as serving military officers. [31]

The SCO, in order to expand its services, required constitutional cover, and amendment of laws and regulations of the telecommunication industry, which were required from the Federal Ministry of Information Technology and Telecommunication. The SCO had reportedly demanded free of cost license to operate across the country, as well as an amendment to law for tax exemption on its income, assets, turnover, sale and custom duties on imports. The SCO had also requested to be funded by the Federal Government, on grounds that without all these allowances, it may lose business to other telecommunication companies. [32]

Reportedly, talks on the matter between the Federal Government officials and the SCO had been going on for months. MNA Captain (Retd.) Safdar, member National Assembly Standing Committee on Information Technology and Telecommunication, had backed the SCO's bid in July 2017 while stating that the ' SCO should come forward in the mainstream, after proving its abilities in communications in the northern parts of the country especially hilly areas .'[33]

It should be noted that there is no annual report available online for SCO and it cannot be ascertained whether it is a profit-making entity in the AJK where it is already granted permission to operate, especially with the advent of other telecommunication companies in AJK, such as Telenor, Zong and Mobilink after the 2005 earthquake. It should also be noted, that before the 2005 earthquake, the SCO was the only telecommunication company allowed to operate in AJK and telecommunication was quite underdeveloped there compared to the rest of the country. [34]


National Security Committee meets thrice in August

In a welcome development, the newly-elected Premier held three meetings of the National Security Committee during August 2017.

Macintosh HD:Users:musirah.farrukh:Desktop:16 August NSC.jpg
PM Shahid Khaqan Abbasi chairing a meeting of the NSC on August 16, 2017

On August 16, 2017, Prime Minister Shahid Khaqan Abbasi chaired the 11 th National Security Committee meeting since its formation in 2013. The commitment to Afghan Peace process was reaffirmed in the meeting, and concern was expressed on Indian violation of the LoC and the continual human rights violations in Kashmir. Gains from Operation Radd-ul-Fasaad and Khyber 4 were lauded.[35]

With the Prime Minister in chair, following members of the NSC attended the meeting: Minister of Foreign Affairs Khawaja Muhammad Asif, MNA, Minister of Defence Engr. Khurram Dastgir Khan, MNA, Minister of Interior Mr. Ahsan Iqbal, MNA, Minister of Finance Mr. Muhammad Ishaq Dar, Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee General Zubair Mahmood Hayat, Chief of Army Staff, General Qamar Javed Bajwa, Chief of Naval Staff Admiral Muhammad Zakaullah and Chief of Air Staff Air Chief Marshal Sohail Aman Mukhtar. In addition to members of the NSC, some senior civil and military officials were also present[36]

Macintosh HD:Users:musirah.farrukh:Desktop:24 August.jpg
PM Shahid Khaqan Abbasi chairing a meeting of the NSC on August 24, 2017

Another NSC meeting was held on August 24, 2017 to discuss US President Trump's South Asia Strategy. [37]

With the Prime Minister in chair, the meeting was attended by the following members of the NSC : Minister of Foreign Affairs Khawaja Muhammad Asif, MNA, Minister of Defence Engr. Khurram Dastgir Khan, MNA, Minister of Interior Mr. Ahsan Iqbal, MNA, Minister of Finance Mr. Muhammad Ishaq Dar, Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee General Zubair Mahmood Hayat, Chief of Army Staff, General Qamar Javed Bajwa, Chief of Naval Staff Admiral Muhammad Zakaullah and Chief of Air Staff Air Chief Marshal Sohail Aman Mukhtar. In addition to members of the NSC, some senior civil and military officials were also present[38]

Macintosh HD:Users:musirah.farrukh:Desktop:CMR:Monitor:CMR Monitor August:NSC meeting 31st Aug, Dawn.jpg
PM Shahid Khaqan Abbasi chairing a meeting of the NSC on August 30, 2017

Similarly, on August 30, 2017, another NSC meeting was held to further discuss U.S South Asia Strategy. An inter-agency sub-committee was also set up to make 'specific proposals for consideration' in next NSC meeting. Commitment to maintaining 'robust defence posture' was reaffirmed in the meeting. [39]

With the Prime Minister in Chair, the meeting was attended by the following members of the NSC : Minister of Foreign Affairs Khawaja Muhammad Asif, MNA, Minister of Defence Engr. Khurram Dastgir Khan, MNA, Minister of Interior Mr. Ahsan Iqbal, MNA, Minister of Finance Mr. Muhammad Ishaq Dar, Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee General Zubair Mahmood Hayat, Chief of Army Staff, General Qamar Javed Bajwa, Chief of Naval Staff Admiral Muhammad Zakaullah and Chief of Air Staff Air Chief Marshal Sohail Aman Mukhtar. In addition to members of the NSC, some senior civil and military officials were also present[40]


COAS calls Former Premier

According to a tweet by DG ISPR Maj. Gen. Asif Ghafoor, COAS General Qamar Bajwa ' expressed his best wishes and prayers for [the] health of Begum Kulsoom Nawaz Sharif ' in a phone call to Former Prime Minister Muhammad Nawaz Sharif on August 23, 2017. Begum Kulsoom Nawaz, former first lady, and wife of Mr. Nawaz Sharif, has been diagnosed with throat cancer. [41]


CDA asked to avoid direct contact with foreign diplomats

Reportedly, a senior officer of the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) met with the Mayor of Islamabad and acting chairman of Capital Development Authority (CDA), Shiekh Anser Aziz, on August 30, 2017, and asked him to direct the CDA to route all communications and visits of diplomats through the Foreign Office. Shiekh Anser Aziz confirmed the meeting and informed the media that they were now following the directed protocol. [42]

The Diplomatic enclave in Islamabad houses embassies and foreign missions and comes under the supervision of the CDA. The embassies in the past had been interacting with CDA officials over municipal matters. Land allocation for embassies is carried out by the CDA and it also approves building plans for them in its capacity of a regulatory body. [43]

While all communication surrounding foreign diplomats should take place through the Foreign Office, it is not clear why the concerned ministry or the foreign office did not direct CDA to follow the correct procedure and why  an official of the ISI had to 'direct' CDA to follow a certain protocol and procedure of communication.


PM-COAS interactions

The newly elected Prime Minister Mr. Shahid Khaqan Abassi, and the Chief of Army Staff General Qamar Javed Bajwa met four (4) times during the month of August 2017.

1.     The COAS called on the Premier on August 08, 2017, at the PM Office in Islamabad. [44]  It appears that the Federal Minister of Defence was not part of the meeting between Premier and COAS

2.    The PM and COAS met three more times during the NSC meetings held on August 16, 24 and 30.


 

International Developments

Turkey changes military chiefs

Macintosh HD:Users:musirah.farrukh:Desktop:CMR:Monitor:CMR Monitor August:NY times Prime Minister Binali Yildirim of Turkey, front right, and the chief of staff, Gen. Hulusi Akar, third from left, visit the Mustafa Kemal Ataturk Mausoleum before the Turkish Supreme Military Council meeting in Ankara on Wednesday.jpg
Prime Minister Binali Yildirim of Turkey, front right, and the chief of staff, Gen. Hulusi Akar, third from left, visit the Mustafa Kemal Ataturk Mausoleum before the Turkish Supreme Military Council meeting

The Supreme Military Council of Turkey, consisting of senior military officials and cabinet ministers, replaced top army, navy and air force chiefs on August 02, 2017. Turkey's President Mr. Erdogan approved all the appointments.[45]

The Chief of Staff, Gen. Hulusi Akar, kept his post. He is due to retire in 2019, after which, one of the newly appointed chiefs will take his post. 2019 is a critical year for Turkey, because changes approved in a referendum earlier, ' will allow the winner of the 2019 presidential election to assume full control of the government, ending the current parliamentary political system .'[46]

Two of the three newly appointed chiefs were held hostage in the failed coup in Turkey. As per media reports, it is believed that the newly appointed chiefs are being rewarded for their loyalty during the coup, and the reshuffling is in line with ' a longer term effort to impose civilian control over the once-dominant Turkish military .'[47] Others believe the efforts were at least partially aimed at preparing for a possible campaign against the Kurdish separatists. [48] Resistance to civilian control remains in military circles. Vice Admiral Nusret Guner, former Turkish Navy Fleet Commander, who resigned in 2013 to protest earlier crackdown, said in a tweet that Turkey's military was 'totally intertwined with politics' and that Turkey was ' done for'.[49]

A few days before, on August 01, 2017, about 461 generals and pilots went on trial in Turkey. They were brought to the courthouse in handcuffs, flanked on each side by two paramilitary officers. [50]

Macintosh HD:private:var:folders:51:_c1668z143x7w77rpjv5xb9m0000gq:T:TemporaryItems:s1.reutersmedia.jpg
Defendants of Turkish Coup trial are brought to court on August 01, 2017, in handcuffs, flanked on both sides by paramilitary officers

Since the failed coup in 2016, about 50,000 alleged supporters of the coup have been arrested, and about 150,000 people from the public sector have been purged. The main accused in the coup case, Mr. Fethullah Gulen, is in self-exile in Pennsylvania and is being tried in absentia. [51] Another 928 public sector workers, including brigadiers, and civil servants were dismissed in Turkey by an emergency decree published on August 22, 2017. A second decree said that Turkish National Intelligence Organization would now report to the President. It previously reported to the Prime Minister. [52]


Former Prime Minister Yingluck's flight provides Thai junta welcome way out

Macintosh HD:Users:musirah.farrukh:Desktop:CMR:Monitor:CMR Monitor August:pm yingluck.jpg
Ousted former Thai Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra

On August 25, 2017, Thai Supreme Court issued an arrest warrant for Former Prime Minister Yingluck. She was ousted back in 2014 and faced 10 years in prison if found guilty in a ' negligence case brought by the ruling junta that centers on her role in a rice subsidy scheme for farmers that resulted in multi-billion dollar losses .'[53]

Before the arrest warrant was issued, Yingluck had already fled to Dubai. According to Reuters, ' Thailand's generals could hardly have planned it better.' Thai Junta did not want to arrest and imprison the 'absconder', giving her political clout to defy them. If arrested, she would have become a martyr and risen to fame like Myanmar's 'once long-detained Aung San Suu Kyi.' [54]

Yingluck's political party still has a wide political base, and if elections are held in the upcoming year, they can still prove to be a formidable democratic force countering the Thai Junta. Although the party lacks leadership, it has reaffirmed commitment to 'work for democracy and the people.' [55]



References

[1] Army announces conclusion of Khyber IV, DAWN, August 21, 2017, as accessed on September 10, 2017, at
https://www.dawn.com/news/1352986

[2] Ibid.

[3] Senate to invite PM, chief justice, military leaders for inter-institutional dialogue, August 10, 2017, as accessed on September 10, 2017 at
https://www.dawn.com/news/1350778

[4] DG ISPR Asif Ghafoor Press Briefing, August 21, 2017, as accessed on September 12, 2017 at
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vNDGXXGpo0c

[5] PMLN renews call for Grand Dialogue, Dawn, September 2, 2017,
https://www.dawn.com/news/1355440/pml-n-renews-call-for-national-dialogue

[6] Senate Chairman's proposal well received, August 14, 2017, as accessed on September 10, 2017 at
https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/223408-Senate-chairmans-proposal-received-well-by-political-parties

[7] ISPR Press Release, Official Website, August 03, 2017, as accessed on September 10, 2017 at
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&id=4153&cat=army#pr_link4156

[8] Ambassador Alice Wells met Tehmina Janjua, Pakistan Today, August 03, 2017, as accessed on September 10, 2017 at.
https://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2017/08/03/ambassador-alice-wells-calls-on-foreign-secretary-tehmina-janjua/

[9] ISPR Press Release, Official Website, August 02, 2017, as accessed on September 10, 2017 at
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&id=4151&cat=army

[10] Today, met with Pak COAS Gen Bajwa for follow up discussion on range of issues, contributing to bilateral tension &how to go abt resolving,’ Zakhiwal, Dr. Omar (@DrOmarZakhiwal), August 02, 2017, Twitter, as accessed on September 10, 2017 at
https://twitter.com/DrOmarZakhilwal/status/892734117812613120

[11] ISPR Press Release, Official Website, August 23, 2017, as accessed on September 10, 2017 at
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&cat=army&date=2017/8/23#pr_link4209
 

[12] ibid.

[13] ISPR Press Release, Official Website, August 25, 2017, as accessed on September 10, 2017 at
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&id=4212&cat=army

[14] ISPR Press Release, Official Website, August 09, 2017, as accessed on September 10, 2017 at
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&cat=army&date=2017/8/9

[15] Asma lashes out at the powers that be, DAWN, August 04, 2017, as accessed on September 10, 2017, at
https://www.dawn.com/news/1349491

[16] For further details, please see Supreme Judicial Council at
http://www.supremecourt.gov.pk/web/page.asp?id=335

[17] For details please see PILDAT Monitors on Civil-Military Relations April, May and June 2017 issues

[18] Country made progress only under dictators, DAWN, August 04, 2017, as accessed on September 10, 2017, at
https://www.dawn.com/news/1349482

[19] Ibid.

[20] Ibid.

[21] Army announces conclusion of Operation Khyber IV, DAWN, August 21, 2017, as accessed on September 10, 2017 at
https://www.dawn.com/news/1352986/army-announces-conclusion-of-operation-khyber-4-in-wide-ranging-press-conference

[22] Ibid.

[23] Abbasi meets COAS, DAWN, August 09, 2017, as accessed on September 10, 2017 at
https://www.dawn.com/news/1350465/abbasi-meets-coas-amid-looming-political-uncertainty

[24] COAS hoists Pakistan's largest flag, DAWN, August 14, 2017, as accessed on September 10, 2017 at
https://www.dawn.com/news/1351409

[25] Independence Day parade at PAF Academy Risalpur, ARY News, August 13, 2017, as accessed on September 10, 2017 at
http://videos.arynews.tv/independence-day-parade-at-paf-academy-risalpur/

[26] ISPR Press Release, Official Website, August 17, 2017, as accessed on September 10, 2017 at
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&id=4189&search=1

[27] Ibid

[28]ISPR Press Release, Official Website, August 01, 2017, as accessed on September 10, 2017 at
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&cat=army&date=2017/8/1

[29] Military-run SCO denied permission to operate, DAWN, August 18, 2017, as accessed on September 10, 2017 at
https://www.dawn.com/news/1352296/military-run-sco-denied-permission-to-operate-across-country

[30] Official website of SCO as accessed on September 10, 2017 at
http://www.sco.gov.pk/aboutus

[32] Ibid

[33] NA body favors SCO to run mobile service countrywide, DAWN, July 13, 2017, as accessed on September 10, 2017 at
https://www.dawn.com/news/1344961

[34] 'Restrictions on Freedom of Expression,' Human Rights Watch
https://www.hrw.org/reports/2006/pakistan0906/5.htm

[35] PM chairs meeting of the NSC, PM Office Official Website, August 16, 2017, as accessed on September 10, 2017 at
http://pmo.gov.pk/press_release_detailes.php?pr_id=1916
 

[36] ibid.

[37] PM chairs meeting of the NSC, PM Office Official Website, August 24, 2017, as accessed on September 10, 2017 at
http://pmo.gov.pk/press_release_detailes.php?pr_id=1940

[38] Ibid

[39] PM chairs meeting of the NSC, PM Office Official Website, August 30, 2017, as accessed on September 10, 2017 at
http://pmo.gov.pk/press_release_detailes.php?pr_id=1952

[40] Ibid.

[41] Army chief calls Nawaz, DAWN, August 23, 2017, as accessed on September 10, 2017 at
https://www.dawn.com/news/1353405

[42] ISI asks CDA to avoid direct interactions, DAWN, August 30, 2017, as accessed on September 10, 2017 at
https://www.dawn.com/news/1354873

[43] Ibid

[44] The Press Release of the Prime Minister Office can be accessed at:
http://pmo.gov.pk/press_release_detailes.php?pr_id=1879

[45] President Erdogan replaced top military chiefs, New York Times, August 02, 2017, as accessed on September 10, 2017 at
https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/02/world/europe/turkey-erdogan-military-chiefs-replace.html?mcubz=0

[46] Ibid

[47] Ibid.

[49] President Erdogan replaced top military chiefs, New York Times, August 02, 2017, as accessed on September 10, 2017 at
https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/02/world/europe/turkey-erdogan-military-chiefs-replace.html?mcubz=0

[50] Turkey opens trial of nearly 500 defendants, Reuters, August 01, 2017, as accessed on September 10, 2017 at
http://www.reuters.com/article/us-turkey-security-trial/turkey-opens-trial-of-nearly-500-defendants-over-failed-coup-idUSKBN1AH4KM

[51] Ibid.

[52] Turkey dismisses 900 public sector workers, DAWN, August 26, 2017, as accessed on September 10, 2017 at
https://www.dawn.com/news/1354015

[53] Thai Supreme Court issues arrest warrant, Reuters, August 25, 2017, as accessed on September 10, 2017 at
http://www.reuters.com/article/us-thailand-yingluck-warrants/thai-supreme-court-issues-arrest-warrant-for-former-pm-yingluck-idUSKCN1B50R7

[55] Party of Thai former PM says will work for democracy, Reuters, August 29, 2017, as accessed on September 10, 2017 at
http://www.reuters.com/article/us-thailand-politics-yingluck/party-of-thai-former-pm-says-will-work-for-democracy-and-the-people-idUSKCN1B90ET