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> Monitor on Civil-Military Relations in Pakistan | July 2017
   
 
CMR Monitor
August 09, 2017
Islamabad

   

This monitor is meant to identify key developments during the month on Civil Military Relations in Pakistan with selected high-profile international developments included occasionally.

 

In this Issue:

1. International Perspectives on ouster of Pakistan Premier

2. Optics of the Special Meeting of the Apex Committee Sindh

3. Launch of Operation Khyber IV

4. DG ISPR praises JIT Members from ISI and MI

5. 202nd Corps Commander Conference

6. Mr. Javed Hashmi's Diatribe Against Generals and Judges

7. Meeting of the National Security Committee

8. COAS Bajwa's call for "Open Debate on CPEC"

9. ‘Baluchistan’ is spelled as ‘Balochistan’ in the Constitution

10. Continuing Pursuit of Clarity by Public Representatives over Gen. Retd. Raheel Sharif's Appointment

11. COAS Bajwa's meeting with International Football Players

12. Premier COAS Interactions

13. PILDAT Study Visit to Indonesia

14. Resignation of the French Chief of Staff following Disagreement with French President

15. Martial Law in Philippines Extended by the Congress

16. Thai Junta in Thailand failed to Achieve Reconciliation: Poll

17. First Anniversary of the Failed Coup in Turkey

18. Arrests of Journalists in Myanmar by the Military Raise Concerns about Press Freedom

 

 

International Perspectives on ouster of Pakistan Premier

Pakistan's Supreme Court disqualifying Mr. Nawaz Sharif for being 'not honest' under Article 62(1)(f) of the Constitution has raised myriad questions and concerns that require Pakistan's polity to immediately and thoroughly address.

While the Supreme Court judgment has evoked mixed reactions at home, the outside world seems to have used a singular lens to view and interpret the developments. That lens is that of civil-military relations and its impact on consolidation of democracy in Pakistan.

The international media comments range from opinions that ' corruption is not the main reason for Mr. Sharif's predicament' but instead it is ' crossing the Military by pursuing conciliatory policies towards India as well as Afghanistan and by reportedly demanding that Inter-Services Intelligence end its use of militant groups as tools of foreign policy .' [1] Comments also allege that the premier's ouster has resulted through Pakistan's Supreme Court 'collaborating with the Pakistan Army against civilian rulers.' [2]

According to international media, lopsided civil-military relations in Pakistan have been at the heart of woes of democratic order in the country: ' civilian Governments have always been hamstrung by the machinations of Pakistan's security forces, with their obsession over India, their aggressive investment in nuclear weapons and their double-dealing in Afghanistan .' [3] Media analyses also go on to raise concerns on consolidation of democracy in Pakistan after disqualification of Mr. Nawaz Sharif saying that the verdict by the Supreme Court 'weakens the country's tenuous democracy and allows its all-powerful army to grab power without having to formally seize it .'[4]

The Washington Post in its editorial mainly saw Mr. Sharif's ouster through lens of accountability and welcomed it by calling it a 'glimmer of hope for accountability and rule of law in a nation that could use much more of it. '[5] However it maintained that 'Pakistan's military and its intelligence service also will remain powerful forces behind the scenes of the Muslim-majority nation, a nuclear weapons state.' [6]

 

Optics of the Special Meeting of the Apex Committee Sindh

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Special meeting of the Apex Committee Sindh that took place on July 04, 2017

A special meeting of the Apex Committee Sindh took place on July 04, 2017 at the Headquarters of Karachi Corps, which was attended by Chief Minister Sindh Mr. Murad Ali Shah, MPA alongside the Chief of Army Staff General Qamar Jawed Bajwa and other members of the committee.

According to the press release issued by the Inter Services Public Relations (ISPR), the Chief of Army Staff ' directed all stakeholders to further improve synergy, reaction capability of LEAs, decision-making process and to hold public office holders accountable .'[7]  General Bajwa also suggested improvements in the internal functioning of the Sindh Police to ' include induction on merit, availability of young trained leadership and strengthening of command .'[8]

The picture released depicts a seating arrangement of the Apex Committee meeting with COAS at the head of the table normally assumed by the person presiding over the meeting. Apparently this is a departure from the past practice in which the Chief Minister - the civilian-elected chief executive of the province - and the Army Chief sit on opposites side of the table, facing each other. Whether these optics are an isolated incident or represent a substantive shift in the position of the military is hard to tell. However, the optics must follow the constitutional position that role of the Military is to work in aid of civil power.

Reportedly, the constitution of Apex Committees after the National Action Plan came about as a way to improve coordination between the Provincial Governments and the Law Enforcement Agencies. However, their constitution has apparently taken place without any formal official notifications. [9] The desired coordination can best take place when the civilian elected governments are fully in charge and seen to be so. On their part, the Provincial Assemblies need to exercise oversight on the role of these Apex Committees.

Comparison: Past Pictures of Special Meetings of the Apex Committee

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Special meeting of the Apex Committee Sindh on May 14, 2015 held at Headquarters Karachi Corps [10]

 

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Special meeting of the Apex Committee Khyber Pakhtunkhwa on February 9, 2016[11]

 

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Special meeting of the Apex Committee Punjab on January 03, 2017 [12]

Launch of Operation Khyber IV

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Director General ISPR Maj. Gen. Asif Ghafoor addressing a press conference on July 16, 2017

On July 16, 2017, in a press conference addressed by DG ISPR Maj. Gen. Asif Ghafoor, Pakistan Army announced the launch of Operation Khyber IV under Operation Radd-ul-Fassad. [13]The Operation was announced to be carried out in the Rajgal Valley of the Khyber Agency in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas. The operation would be the ' Army's second operation in Rajgal. In August 2016, a similar operation was conducted and air strikes on militant targets continued in the year .'[14]

Following the announcement of the launch of the Operation, the spokesperson for the Afghan Ministry of Defence claimed that ' Pakistan had not carried out any coordination while launching the military operation in the Rajgal Valley despite having an understanding about having coordinated operations on both sides of the Durand Line .'[15]

In an ISPR press release on July 19, 2017, the Afghan Ministry of Defence Response to Operation Khyber IV was termed 'unwarranted.' The ISPR press release also went on to say that the Afghan Ministry of Defence's response ran ' counter to Pakistan Army's efforts for better Pak-Afghan coordination and cooperation .'[16]

 

DG ISPR praises JIT Members from ISI and MI

While answering questions posed to him on the Panama Paper's Case during his press conference announcing the launch of Operation Khyber IV, DG ISPR Maj. Gen. Asif Ghafoor said that ' Pakistan Army is not directly linked with the issue as the JIT was formed by the Supreme Court and the two members from the MI and ISI worked under Supreme Court .'[17]  However, Maj. Gen. Ghafoor went on to praise the role of the ISI and MI representatives in the JIT, adding that they worked 'diligently and honestly.' [18]

 

202nd Corps Commander Conference

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The 202nd Corps Commander conference that took place on July 10, 2017

The 202nd Corps Commander conference took place on July 10, 2017, the same day when the final JIT Report, under the Panama Papers Case, was submitted to the Supreme Court. In the ISPR press release issued after the conference, the forum ' reiterated to continue supporting and enabling national efforts to play positive role in line with Pakistan's national interests .'[19]

 

Mr. Javed Hashmi's Diatribe Against Generals and Judges

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Mr. Javed Hashmi addressing a press conference on July 12, 2017

Mr. Javed Hashmi, a former federal minister and a former leader of both PML-N as well as the PTI, in a press conference on July 12, 2017 criticized the Panama Paper's investigation as 'a ploy to oust Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif.' [20] He went on to say that ' politicians have always sacrificed for the country but there has been no one who can try generals and judges who commit wrongdoings .'[21]

Mr. Hashmi expressed his exasperation at the lack of accountability of former military generals who had violated the constitution. He was also critical of the Supreme Court's history as according to him 'it did nothing when the Constitution was trampled in the past' [22] while referring to its role in legitimizing military coups.

It may be noted that Mr. Hashmi made somewhat similar remarks after disassociating himself from the Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf when he said that the 2014 PTI sit-in was ' a scripted plan to overthrow the Government, using violent protests as a pretext .'[23]Later, speaking about the same sit-in on December 30, 2016, Mr. Hashmi alleged that Chairman Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf Imran Khan wanted to bring a 'judicial martial law.' [24]

Meeting of the National Security Committee

On July 07, 2017, a month after the latest National Security Committee meeting, Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif chaired the 9th meeting of the National Security Committee since its formation in 2013.

The forum expressed its support for 'an Afghan led and Afghan owned peace process' [25] while also saying that ' simultaneous efforts by the Afghan government for restoring effective control on its territory is required .'[26]

It is a welcome development that the National Security Committee is meeting more regularly since May 2017 maintaining a monthly periodicity.

 

Table 1: Meetings of the National Security Committee

No.

Meetings of the NSC

Intervening Period between NSC Meetings

1

August 22, 2013

2.

December 17, 2013

3 months, 26 days

3.

April 17, 2014

4 months

4.

October 16, 2014

5 months 29 days

5.

April 06, 2016

1 year 6 months

6.

July 22, 2016

2 months, 16 days

7.

May 31, 2017

10 months

8.

June 07, 2017

6 days

9.

July 07, 2017

1 month

Table 2: Frequency of National Security Committee Meetings Each Year

Year

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

No. of Meetings

2

2

0

2

3

 

COAS Bajwa's call for "Open Debate on CPEC"

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Picture of the CPEC Logistics Forum held on July 12, 2017

The National Logistics Cell, an organization that comes under the Ministry of Planning and Development but has as its head a serving Lieutenant General, organized a seminar titled CPEC Logistics Forum on July 12, 2017. Chief of Army Staff, General Qamar Jawed Bajwa, who joined the Forum as the Key Note Speaker, expressed a desire for an open debate on China Pakistan Economic Corridor in order to 'help formulate the best long term economic policies for Pakistan.' [27] He also said that for CPEC to be beneficial to Pakistan, ' while Army would provide security to the project, the other National institutes will have to come forward and play their respective roles .'[28]

With many All Party Conferences held on the project that have also resulted in formation of a Special Parliamentary Committee on CPEC in September 2015 [29] as well as an 11-member Steering Committee including 4 Chief Ministers [30], the project has, indeed, continued to see very vibrant and open debate on the issue across all stakeholders belonging to different political and geographical perspectives since 2015. In addition, the project also receives probing print and electronic media analyses, as should be the case in a vibrant democracy. Given that the COAS has given the call for open debate on CPEC at this stage seems to suggest to national and international audience as if Pakistan has signed on the project without required internal debate. If this is not the intent of his comment, it must be clarified.

The other remark by the COAS made at the Forum that ' while Army would provide security to the project, the other National institutes will have to come forward and play their respective roles ' [31] seems to represent the continuing trend of painting Pakistan's vital interest issues in the light of "Us & Them."

As a developing country home to the world's 6th largest population, Pakistan does not have a shortage of challenges in nearly every sphere. One can hardly argue that the "Us & Them" narrative depicting multiple power centres within the country is helpful in addressing these challenges. Instead of promotion and strengthening of a dangerous perception that Pakistan's institutions are at loggerheads with each other, there is no more critical time than today that institutions come forward and urgently address this critical challenge.

 

'Baluchistan' is spelled as 'Balochistan' in the Constitution

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Chief of Army Staff Qamar Jawed Bajwa at the Quetta Garrison on July 14, 2017

According to a press release issued after the COAS's visit to the Quetta Garrison on July 14, 2017, General Bajwa, in the context of the security situation in Balochistan, ' hailed efforts in socio-economic domain and resultant considerable willing surrender of fararies. He said that Baluchistan [sic] is his prime focus and prosperity of people of Baluchistan [sic] at par with other provinces is the main objective .'[32]

The ISPR in its press releases off late has been using the incorrect spellings of Balochistan. Given that Article 1 of the Constitution [33] was specifically amended under 18th Amendment to the Constitution to change the spellings of the name of the province from "Baluchistan" to "Balochistan," the official public relations body representing the 3 branches of the Pakistan Military would do well to use correct and official spellings of the province.

 

Continuing Pursuit of Clarity by Public Representatives over Gen. (Retd.) Raheel Sharif's Appointment

Former Advisor to the former Prime Minister on Foreign Affairs, Mr. Sartaj Aziz, was unable to provide clarity to the Senate on the subject of Gen. Retd. Raheel Sharif's appointment as head of the Islamic Military Coalition to Fight Terrorism (IMCFT). Responding to questions after his statement in the Senate on July 18, 2017, Mr. Aziz maintained his earlier position that Gen. (Retd.) Sharif's appointment would bring balance to the prevailing situation while not mentioning when the Terms of Reference for the IMCFT would be decided.[34] However, Mr. Aziz did tell the House that as far as he was aware, ' there are no troops commanded by him (Gen. Retd. Sharif) and he is not wearing any uniform .'[35]

Previously, at an in-camera briefing session to the Senate Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs on June 21, 2017, Mr. Aziz had reportedly shared that Gen. (Retd.) Raheel Sharif cannot be called back to Pakistan because he had joined the Islamic Military Coalition to Fight Terrorism in his personal capacity.[36]

This time, however, Mr. Aziz, answering a question by the Chairman of the Senate, Senator Raza Rabbani about the Terms of Reference of IMCFT, said that ' whatever terms of reference are agreed as far as he (Gen. Retd. Sharif) is concerned, he will follow the policy decisions that the Government makes in consultation with the Parliament and that by itself does not indicate any change .'[37]

These remarks indicate at the very least the existence of some form of confusion within the Government on the role of Gen. Retd. Sharif in the IMCFT.

 

COAS Bajwa's meeting with International Football Players

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Chief of Army Staff General Bajwa with Ronaldinho and other international football players on July 08, 2017

On July 08, 2017, Chief of Army Staff General Bajwa met international football star Ronaldinho and other international football players visiting Pakistan to play two exhibition matches in a tour organized by the Leisure League in collaboration with the Pakistan Army [38] thanking them and telling them that 'Pakistan is a peace and sports loving country.' [39]

Leisure League is considered to be the largest international organizer of football events and it has recently expanded its activities in Pakistan. Reportedly, the Punjab Government was first asked by Leisure League to provide security for the event, but it refused in the light of precarious security concerns. Afterwards, the Pakistan Army was contacted to provide security for the event.

Interestingly, the Punjab government had tasked security agencies to look into the threat perception for the high-profile event. It refused to provide security for the match in the light of the suggestion by the security and intelligence agencies' report, which said that it would be risky to hold a large-scale match at Qaddafi Stadium. [40]

 

Premier COAS Interactions

The then Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and Chief of Army Staff Qamar Jawed Bajwa met once during the month and that too during the National Security Committee meeting on July 07, 2017.

The meeting was attended by the then Minister for Defence, Khawaja Muhammad Asif, MNA, the then Minister for Finance Senator Muhammad Ishaq Dar, the then Minister for Interior Chaudhry Nisar Ali Khan, MNA, the then Adviser to PM on Foreign Affairs, Mr. Sartaj Aziz, Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee General Zubair Mahmood Hayat, Chief of Army Staff, General Qamar Javed Bajwa, Chief of Naval Staff Admiral Muhammad Zakaullah, Chief of Air Staff, Air Chief Marshal Sohail Aman, National Security Advisor Lt. Gen (Retd.) Nasser Khan Janjua, Director General ISI, Lt. Gen. Naveed Mukhtar and senior civil and military officials. [41]

 

PILDAT Study Visit to Indonesia

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Pakistan Delegation with the Honourable Vice President of Indonesia, H. E. Mr. Muhammad Jusuf Kalla, at Merdeka Palace, Jakarta on July 19, 2017

PILDAT organized and conducted a Study Visit to Indonesia from July 17-20, 2017. As Pakistan and Indonesia share many common traits, including the journey towards democratic consolidation from military rule, the purpose of the study visit was to seek a deeper understanding of democratic consolidation in Indonesia just as Pakistan has begun its own longest uninterrupted spell of democratic governance in 2017. 

The Pakistan delegation was led by Senator Mushahid Hussain Sayed, Chairperson, Senate Standing Committee on Defence, while the members included Syed Naveed Qamar, MNA Chairperson, National Assembly Standing Committee on Railways and former Defence Minister;  Senator Muhammad Javed Abbasi, Chairperson, Senate Standing Committee on Law and Justice; Oversight Committee on Eradication of Corruption from Federal Government Departments;  Senator Lt. Gen. (Retd.) Abdul Qayyum, Chairperson, Senate Standing Committee on Defence Production;  Lt. Gen. (Retd.) Moinuddin Haider, Former Federal Minister for Interior; Former Governor Sindh Province;  Syed Ali Zafar, Senior Advocate Supreme Court of Pakistan; Former President Supreme Court Bar Association; Ms. Aasiya Riaz, Joint Director PILDAT and  Ms. Amna Kausar, Projects Manager PILDAT. 

In a multi-dimensional study visit, the delegates engaged in a variety of discussions, interactions and exchange of views in Indonesia. The delegation received interactive briefings on the state of democratic consolidation of Indonesia by Mr. Jakob Tobing, one of the most prominent architects of the new democratic Indonesia who played an instrumental role in Indonesia's transition from the authoritarian rule to democracy in 1998; Dr. Ali Wibisono, Faculty of University of Indonesia and Mr. Meidyatama (Demas), President of the Antara News Agency, while in Jakarta. Pakistan delegation also visited the Centre for Strategic Studies and International Studies (CSIS) where  Mr. Jusuf Wanandi, Vice Chair CSIS and CSIS experts gave an insightful presentation on Indonesian journey towards democratic consolidation. The delegation also visited the  Habibie Centre, a leading think tank that works on democracy and human rights in Indonesia, where it received a briefing on state of democracy in Indonesia.

In meeting with members of Commission-1  of the House of Representatives (DPR), members of the commission briefed the delegates on the role of oversight of defence, foreign affairs and information. 

In addition to interactive sessions, the Pakistan delegation also interacted with Indonesian Government representatives and opposition leaders. The Pakistan delegation called on the Defence Minister of Indonesia, Gen. (Retd.) Ryamizard Ryacudu  who discussed with the delegates Indonesia's policies to combat terrorism. In a conversation with Dr. Fadhli Zon, Vice Speaker of the House of Representatives (Indonesian Parliament), the Pakistan delegates were briefed on key features of the Parliament, election process and constituency politics in Indonesia.

General (Retd.) Wiranto , Coordinating Minister for Political, Legal and Security Affairs, briefed the Pakistan delegation on functions of the Coordinating Ministry especially in coordination and synchronization of the formulation, determination and implementation of policies related to issues of politics, law and security in Indonesia. 

Pakistan delegation on Study Visit to Indonesia also called on the Honourable Vice President of Indonesia, H.E Mr. Muhammad Jusuf Kalla at the Merdeka Palace, Jakarta. The Honourable Vice President highlighted the strengths of relations between Indonesia and Pakistan and the role the two countries can play in addressing challenges faced by the Muslim Countries. 

In a grand finale to the Study Visit, Pakistan delegation was warmly received with a Guard of Honour and band playing national anthems of Indonesia and Pakistan at the Gerindra party headquarters by the chairman Gerindra Party Mr. Prabowo Subianto alongside his party office bearers.

A full report on the Study Visit is under preparation and will be released soon by PILDAT.

 
 

Ahead of PILDAT Study Visit to Indonesia, PILDAT commissioned a paper to reflect latest developments in the context of civil-military relations in Indonesia. Authored by Dr. Ali Abdullah Wibisono, the paper carries a most recent account of development of Civil-Military Relations in Indonesia.

 

International Developments Affecting Civil Military Relations Around the World

 

Resignation of the French Chief of Staff following Disagreement with French President

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President Emmanuel Macron (left) and French Chief of Staff General Pierre de Villiers (right) during the Bastille Day parade

The Military Chief of France General Pierre de Villiers resigned on July 19, 2017 following a public disagreement with President of France Emmanuel Macron.[42] The disagreement was over an upcoming surprise 850 million Euros budget cut for the French military, with the budget cut revealed by a Government Minister in a newspaper interview. [43]

Following a strongly worded statement by General Pierre de Villiers in front of a closed parliamentary committee for the proposed budget cut, President Macron, at the annual military garden party, reminded the Army officers that he 'is the boss.' [44]

 

Martial Law in Philippines Extended by the Congress

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President Rodrigo Duterte, centre, examining seized weaponry from Islamist militants during a visit to a military camp in Marawi City in the southern Philippines, on July 22, 2017. [45]

The Philippine Congress extended the martial law imposed by the President of Philippines, Mr. Rodrigo Duterte, on May 23, 2017 in the island of Mindano on July 22, 2017 for five more months. [46] In the absence of extension by the Congress, Mr. Duterte's proclamation of martial law was going to expire on the evening of July 22, 2017.

The reported reason for the extension of martial law in the Southern region of Philippines is to contain the terrorist threat in the area, particularly in the southern city of Marawi that is under siege by the militants. [47] Certain sections in Philippines consider the martial law unnecessary and view it as Mr. Duterte's attempt to ' use the Marawi crisis as an excuse to impose authoritarian rule in the Philippines .'[48]

 

Thai Junta in Thailand Failed to Achieve Reconciliation: Poll

According to a survey conducted by Suan Dunsit Poll that was released on July 15, 2017, more than 70% of the Thai respondents believed that even after three years of attempting to build unity in Thailand, the military-installed regime has failed to bring about reconciliation. 'Disharmony in politics' was the top-most concern of the 1278 people interviewed for the survey, followed by 'behaviour of politicians'. Two-thirds of the people believed that politicians often abused their power for their own benefit and set a bad example due to their verbal abuse. 57% people were also afraid that the election would be further postponed.

The poll also asked the people what they wanted to see in Thai politics, and the first of the top five responses was harmony, followed by healthy economy, and corruption free politics. The fourth thing people wanted to see was democracy and inclusive politics. [49]

As a way of background to the reconciliation which the poll found missing, under the existing military rule in Thailand, [50] the Thai Junta had set up a reconciliation panel in January 2017 in order to unite different divisive factions in the country. The panel consisted of both army generals, and representatives of two of the biggest political parties in Thailand.[51] This reconciliation process was meant to be a precursor to a general election, which has been postponed multiple times since 2014. The reconciliation committee, under the leadership of General Prayut Chan-o-cha, head of the Thai Military Junta and Prime Minister of Thailand, approved what is termed as a 'reconciliation social contract.' The contract lists ten points, such as: "Differences of opinions should be accepted and political institutions strengthened so they lead to transparent, clean and fair elections." Politicians termed the contract as window dressing. [52] 

 

First Anniversary of the Failed Coup in Turkey

One year has passed since an attempted coup by factions in the Turkish military was thwarted within hours by a great public outpour in support of Tayyip Erdogan. July 15 was marked as a national holiday of "democracy and unity" in Turkey while a people's parade was also arranged. [53]

The failed coup attempt has seen a continuing imposition of emergency and a 'purge' of the army and bureaucracy in Turkey. Turkish President Erdogan, in a recent speech has indicated that " there can be no question of lifting emergency rule with all this happening ."[54]

The international community continues to criticize President Erdogan to have used the coup attempt as an excuse to crush dissent in the country. Since the coup, reportedly 150,000 people have been sacked or suspended from the army and civil services and  50,000 have been detained for alleged links to the coup. [55]

 

Arrests of Journalists in Myanmar by the Military raise Concerns about Press Freedom

The detention of three journalists by the Myanmar Military on June 29, 2017 has raised concerns in certain quarters in Myanmar over the gains made in press freedom in the recent past. [56] The case of the journalists, who are being charged under unlawful association, is being handled by the military while some in Myanmar believe that it should be the Ministry of Home Affairs that should pursue their case. [57]

Myanmar was under Military rule from 1962 to 2011 after which a 'nominally civilian elected Government' was handed rule. [58]However, even under the current Government elected in 2015 and led by Aung San Suu Kyi of the National League for Democracy, the Myanmar military is perceived to ' retain considerable amount of power in the Government and Parliament .'[59]

 

 

References

[1] 'Pakistan's court sets a dangerous precedent,' The New York Times, Aqil Shah, July 28, 2017, accessed on August 01, 2017 at:
https://www.nytimes.com/2017/07/28/opinion/why-ousting-nawaz-sharif-sets-a-dangerous-precedent-for-pakistan.html

[2] 'With Nawaz's ouster, Pakistan Military's chokehold over parliament tightens,' The Wire, Mohammad Taqi, July 31, 2017, accessed on August 01, 2017 at:
https://thewire.in/163101/nawaz-sharif-pakistan-military/

[3] 'Pakistan's Prime Minister falls again,' The New York Times, July 31, 2017, accessed on August 01, 2017 at:
https://mobile.nytimes.com/2017/07/31/opinion/pakistan-nawaz-sharif-ousted.html?referer=https://t.co/xhd7swSNkq?amp=1

[4] 'Why Sharif's ouster is dangerous for Pakistan,' Barkha Dutt, The Washington Post, July 30, 2017, accessed on August 01, 2017 at:
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/global-opinions/wp/2017/07/30/why-sharifs-ouster-is-dangerous-for-pakistan/?tid=ss_tw&utm_term=.8f66294a798d

[5] 'The ouster in Pakistan is actually a glimmer of hope,' The Washington Post, July 30, 2017, accessed on August 02, 2017 at:
https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/the-ouster-in-pakistan-is-actually-a-glimmer-of-hope/2017/07/30/ba8e13da-73bc-11e7-8839-ec48ec4cae25_story.html?utm_term=.0cabf305ce38

[6] ibid.

[7] The ISPR press release can be accessed at:
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&id=4096&cat=army

[8] ibid.

[9] PILDAT in its Monitor on Civil-Military Relations in Pakistan for January 15, 2015 pointed out that 'no circular or notification was issued either by the four Provincial Governments or the Federal Government for their formation, but instead the 'official' announcement came only through the ISPR.' The monitor can be accessed at:
http://www.pildat.org/Publications/publication/CMR/MonitorOnCivil-MilitaryRelationsinPakistan_Jan012015_Jan312015.pdf

[10] The ISPR press release can be accessed at:
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&id=2885&cat=army

[11] The ISPR press release can be accessed at:
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&cat=army&date=2016/2/9

[12] The ISPR press release can be accessed at:
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&id=2748

[13] 'Army launches operation in Khyber Valley,' Dawn, published on July 17, 2017, accessed on July 31, 2017 at:
http://epaper.dawn.com/DetailNews.php?StoryText=17_07_2017_001_008

[14] ibid.

[15] 'Army rejects Kabul's criticism of anti-IS action,' Dawn, July 20, 2017, accessed on July 31, 2017 at:
http://epaper.dawn.com/DetailNews.php?StoryText=20_07_2017_001_004

[16] ISPR press release can be accessed at:
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&cat=army&date=2017/7/19

[17] 'Army launches operation in Khyber Valley,' Dawn, published on July 17, 2017, accessed on July 31, 2017 at:
http://epaper.dawn.com/DetailImage.php?StoryImage=17_07_2017_001_008

[18] ibid.

[19] The ISPR Press Release can be accessed at:
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&cat=army&date=2017/7/10

[20] 'Hashmi asks why politicians, not generals, held accountable,' Dawn, July 13, 2017, accessed on July 31, 2017 at:
http://epaper.dawn.com/DetailNews.php?StoryText=13_07_2017_001_007

[21] ibid.

[23] 'Javed Hashmi announces resignation from PTI,' Dawn, updated on October 01, 2017, accessed on July 31, 2017 at:
https://www.dawn.com/news/1135523

[24] 'Imran Khan planned judicial martial law in 2014, claims Javed Hashmi,' Geo News,  December 30, 2016, can be accessed at:
https://www.geo.tv/latest/125578-Imran-Khan-planned-judicial-martial-law-in-2014-claims-Javed-Hashmi

[25] Press release by the Prime Minister Office can be accessed at:
http://pmo.gov.pk/press_release_detailes.php?pr_id=1841

[26] ibid.

[27] Press Release by the ISPR can be accessed at:
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&id=4111&cat=army

[28] ibid.

[29] For details, please see Mushahid Hussain elected chairman of CPEC parliamentary committee , The Express Tribune, September 15, 2015:
https://tribune.com.pk/story/957311/mushahid-hussain-elected-chairman-of-cpec-parliamentary-committee/

[30] For details, please see 11-Member 11-member committee on CPEC formed, The News, January 16, 2016:
https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/90745-11-member-committee-on-CPEC-formed

[31] ibid.

[32] Press release by the ISPR can be accessed at:
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&cat=army&date=2017/7/14

[33] Under 18th Amendment, Article 1 of the Constitution was amended as follows: In the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, hereinafter referred to as the Constitution, in Article 1, in clause (2), in paragraph (a), for the word 'Baluchistan' the word "Balochistan", for the words "North West Frontier" the words "Khyber Pakhtunkhwa", and for the word "Sind" the word "Sindh" shall be substituted .

[34] 'Saudi-led military alliance's ToR awaited, Aziz tells Senate,' Dawn, July 19, 2017, accessed on July 31, 2017 at:
http://epaper.dawn.com/DetailNews.php?StoryText=19_07_2017_001_005

[35] The Senate Hansard of July 18, 2017 can be accessed at:
http://www.senate.gov.pk/uploads/documents/debates/1500477900_780.pdf

[36] 'Gen Sharif not deputed to S. Arabia by govt: Aziz,' Dawn, June 22, 2017, can be accessed at:
http://epaper.dawn.com/DetailNews.php?StoryText=22_06_2017_001_002

[37] The Senate Hansard of July 18, 2017 can be accessed at:
http://www.senate.gov.pk/uploads/documents/debates/1500477900_780.pdf

[38] The ISPR press release can be accessed at:
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&id=4102&cat=army

[39] The ISPR press release can be accessed at:
https://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&id=4102&cat=army

[40] 'Army to provide security for Leisure League match,' Dawn, July 06, 2017, accessed on July 31, 2017 at:
https://www.dawn.com/news/1343451

[41] The press release of the Prime Minister Office can be accessed at:
http://pmo.gov.pk/press_release_detailes.php?pr_id=1841

[42] 'Head of French Military quits after row with Emmanuel Macron,' The Guardian, July 19, 2017, accessed on July 31, 2017 at:
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/jul/19/head-of-french-military-quits-after-row-with-emmanuel-macron

[43] ibid.

[44] ibid.

[45] 'Philippine Congress Extends Martial Law in Besieged Region,' The New York Times, published on July 22, 2017, accessed on July 31, 2017 at:
https://www.nytimes.com/2017/07/22/world/asia/philippines-martial-law-rodrigo-duterte.html

[46] ibid.

[47] 'Duterte imposes martial law in Philippines after Islamist militant go on rampage, 'beheading local police chief' and taking priest hostage,' Telegraph, can be accessed at:
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/05/24/duterte-imposes-martial-law-philippines-islamist-militants-go/

[48] 'Philippine Congress Extends Martial Law in Besieged Region,' The New York Times, published on July 22, 2017, accessed on July 31, 2017 at:
https://www.nytimes.com/2017/07/22/world/asia/philippines-martial-law-rodrigo-duterte.html

[49] "Junta failed to achieve reconciliation: poll." The Sunday Nation, can be accessed at:
http://www.nationmultimedia.com/detail/politics/30320855.

[50] In 2014 General Prayut Chan-o-cha, Commander of the Royal Thai Army, launched a coup d'état disposing the caretaker government after six months of street protests against it. The military then set up a National Council for Peace and Order (commonly known as Thai Junta) to govern the nation. The Senate and Parliament were dissolved and the constitution repealed. The NCPO then issued an interim constitution, and established a military dominated national legislature, which unanimously elected General Prayut as the Prime Minister.

[51] "Thailand sets up reconciliation panel ahead of polls." Al Jazeera, can be accessed at:
http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2017/01/thailand-sets-reconciliation-panel-polls-170120082405005.html.

[52] "Thailand approves 'reconciliation social contract', but some skeptical." Reuters, can be accessed at:
http://www.reuters.com/article/us-thailand-politics-idUSKBN1A91KP.

[53] "Turkey marks year since 'epic' defeat of anti-Erdogan coup." Dawn, can be accessed at:
http://epaper.dawn.com/DetailNews.php?StoryText=16_07_2017_014_002

[54] ibid.

[55] ibid.

[56] 'Myanmar journalists decry military's role in their detention,' Reuters, July 18, 2017, can be accessed at:
http://www.reuters.com/article/us-myanmar-military-journalists-idUSKBN1A31BG

[57] ibid.

[58] ;Myanmar country profile,' BBC, can be accessed at:
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-pacific-12990563

[59] ibid.